Your Questions About Sustainable Energy Fund
Could we transistion to 40% sustainable energy in the next 50 years? How?
If we shifted our investments from oil, bloated military spending etc… Isn’t solar doable for every home now if we make policies to bring the prices down- like we did for the auto (govt funded roads, oil policy), the computer chip, the Internet etc….
We could do it in 2 to 5.
Comprehensive Energy Plan To Lower Gasoline Prices
This is how we will do it. And this why we will do it.
This country has so much under used industrial capacity in our Auto Plants, Airplane Plants, Steel Plants and Electronics Plants to make America Energy Independent in 2 to 5 years. We can build enough windmills and solar power and wave generation energy plants to replace 90% of all of the electricity generated by COAL and NATURAL GAS.
For under $400 Billion we could build 400,000 windmills.
The Coal and Natural Gas saved by Green Replaceable Elecrrical Generation can now be used to make fuel for cars, trucks, busses, boats and airplanes, and or plastics, chemicals, fertilizers and pharmacuticals.
We need a comprehensive plan that puts America back to work in endeavors that benefit 99% of America.
Howard Scott Pearlman
Trading in Bioethanol is done in a T1 and T2 product. What is the difference?
Trading in Ethanol for delivery in Rotterdam is done as T1 ethanol FOB Rotterdam, or T2 ethanol FOB Rotterdam. What is the difference between the two?
USD 0.20USD0.25 – 0.45Ethanol production cost48 litres Et/ha/day15 litresEt/ha/dayphotosynthetic efficiency(carbohydrate sythesis)28 – 30 % of sweet sorghum30 % of caneBagasse availability35 – 40 % of cane100%Fertiliser65 – 70 % of cane100%Water requirement45 – 55 litres / tonne of stalks68 – 74litres/tonneConventional ethanol yield9 – 11 %11 – 13 %Sugar content17 – 22 tonnes x twice/year= 34 – 44 tonnes28 – 32 tonnesYield per Acre3.5 – 4 months(Grown twice / year)10-11 monthsCrop CycleSweet SorghumSugarcanePropertiesSugarcane Vs Sweet Sorghum
1205000100001500020000250003000035000SimaKellerMadhuraPraj1Ge2Ge2WrayCowleyTS1VarietyYieldstemskg/haT1T2Harvest of sweet sorghum at different growth stagesT1 – Boot stage T2 – Soft dough stageSweet Sorghum Trials at UNZA (1)
13051015202530T1T2T3T4Growth StageBrix%SimaKellerMadhuraPraj 1GE2GE3WrayCowleyTS1Harvest of Sweetsorghum days afterplantingT1 – 100 – 110 daysT2 – 110 – 120 daysT3 – 120 – 140 daysT4 – 140 – 160 daysAccumulation of sugar in different varieties ofsweet sorghum at UNZA Farm.Sweet Sorghum Trials at UNZA (2)
14Mass Ratios and Brix for Different SS Varieties0.0010.0020.0030.0040.0050.0060.0070.0080.00123456789VarietyPercentageBagasse to SSS RatioJuice to SSS RatioBrix1- Sima, 2- TS1, 3-Madhura, 4-Praj 1, 5- GE2,6-GE3, 7-Wray, 8-Cowlley, 9-KellerSweet Sorghum Trials at UNZA (3)
15OBSERVATIONS…Average juice = 35%, with low varianceAverage bagasse = 65%Average brix = 18.2%, max = 25.31%, min = 12.52%Suitable brix for ethanol production = 15 – 20%Varieties with highest ethanol potential (both highjuice and brix)Wray (Juice 35.14%, Brix 25.31 %)GE2 (Juice 36.96%, Brix 21.66%)Sweet Sorghum Trials at UNZA (4)
16Potential Export MarketsRegional deficit at E10:> 0.74billion litres at E10 (present)> 1.0 billion litres (2015).International:EU?Asia?
17KEY CHALLENGES & ISSUES TO CONSIDERNo policy on mandatory blendingNo standards developed for ethanol as a transportfuelOver 80% of land is customary (under chiefs!)Lack of policy on bioenergy outgrower schemeswith extension service backupInadequate supporting infrastructureAnnouncement of oil reserves in north westernZambia. What next?Export potential faced with international tradebarriers
18CONCLUDING REMARKSZambia has great potential produce bio-ethanol forsustainable developmentThe climate, soils and area gives it high potential togrow sugarcane and sweet sorghum to exportethanol regionally and internationallyNeed for a condusive regulatory, fiscal and policyframeworkLand locked: need for regional linkagesSADC biofuels market can benefit from expansion ofZambia’s ethanol industry due to centre location
19CEEEZCentre forEnergy, Environment andEngineering Zambia LimitedTHANKS ARE EXTENDED TO:•Global Forum on Sustainable Energy (GFSE)• Austrian Development Agency and Austrian Energy Agency• Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida)• European Commission DG-Research• Common Fund for Commodities (CFC)• Partners in the Cane Resources Network for Southern Africa (CARENSA)EUROPEAN COMMISSIONResearch Directorate-GeneralScientific Coordinatorwww.carensa.net
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