how does matter and energy cycle through ecosystems?
okayy so i’m so confused because i have to do a summer assignment and write about how matter and energy cycle through ecosystems and i have noo clue what i’m doing and am so confused!!! lol
but yeah so coould anybody give me either really good sites, or maybe you know about this topic? because i’ve looked at the other answers to this question when someone else asked it and i didnt understand the answer at all! any answers would be appriceated!! thanks!
Since we have addressed most of the harmful pollution issues we are left with the byproducts of the energy-matter cycle. Our Environmental issues have been boiled down to their most basic elements, there is too much Carbon in the air, it needs to be in the ground, and there is too much Nitrogen in the water, it should be in the air. It really is that simple.
Excessive Carbon in the air is the byproduct of burning fuels that once were plants & animals. We are releasing it into the air at alarming rates that are measurable globally and has the potential to drastically change our world.
Excessive Nitrogen in the water is from poor agricultural practices & artificially fixed Nitrogen that, when washed into open waterways, promote the excessive growth of algae. This alters the food chain of local environments worldwide.
The best way to fix this is first to understand the what & why, this is where assignments like yours are so important. Taken this opportunity to teach people about the problems, their causes & cures.
One interesting factoid I came across during the recent 100 year anniversary of chemical ammonia & fertilizer, was that 50% of the Nitrogen in our bodies has come from artificially fixed ammonia!
Here is the Cycle in a Snapshot……
#1 is the Sun
Mix Water (Hydrogen & Oxygen) with Nitrogen & Carbon. Through Photosynthesis, plants make sugars, carbohydrates, starches, and cellulose.
Animal metabolize these for food.
As Plants and animals die & decay the Nitrogen is released & taken back into plants, as well as some of the carbon.
What is left in the ground after a long time are hydrocarbons and over the eons, this has changed Earths atmosphere into the low Carbon, high Oxygen Environment we know today.
Mankind has through innovation found we can do work with the energy locked in the Hydrocarbons, and over the past 150 years have become so efficient at doing so, that we are releasing more Carbon into the air than Earth’s systems can consume back. We have also overflowed the capacity of Plants by over fertilizing the soil to produce ever growing amounts of food. This excess finds it way into waterways and thus the problems it causes.
We must find ways to work in the confines of the Environment around us. Low Carbon energy, and sustainable food production are key. The answers are out there, we just need to find them & implement them.
Good Luck on your report!
Haiti – How much cost for the US to take over Haiti as a de facto Protectorate?
Nothing else has worked. A ten-year interim government could completely change the education system to root our racism and illiteracy, make adequate health care and food available, restore the land for sustainable agriculture, and reorganize the government to eradicate corruption, in short to establish a viable civil society that the Haitian People deserve? Or, with the political ramifications, is Haiti not worth our time, energy and money? The piece-meal fixes over the years seem to do nothing but maintain the status quo. ANY OTHER IDEAS?
The costs would start at a trillion dollars just to build the infrastructure required to do this. Then you could probably count on about 100 billion a year to sustain the programs.
Due to the language issues (the majority of the people in Haita only speak a dialect that is unique to the island and French is the language spoken in business and govrenment) it will take over 20 years to create a generation who are educated to modren standards. It would then take another 20 years for these people to become expierenced middle and senior managers capible of managing a government and govrenment agencies.
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How can such a company be allowed to build nuclear power plants?
How is it possible that a company with the reputation of Tepco be allowed to build nuclear power plants in Japan where there are large earthquakes? …or anywhere for that matter. In fact, corporate greed has reached it’s peak don’t you think? Why do you think man has been so lazy in using renewable energy sources?
The Politics of Power!
On Brians answer… Humans call it clean and renewable…while trying to ignore that they are burying Nuclear waste under the earths crust calling it safe. Actually it gives the problem to the next generation of humans and the environment.
Earthquake happen underground all the time.only sometimes generating havoc on the surface.
If this waste were to ever leak into the underground water system…the epic radiation of spent fuel rods will pollute more than just an area on top of the earth.
To the doubters of global warming, would you buy renewable energy?
I hear you, you are sick of Al Gore and aren’t convinced in the science behind global warming. But would you buy renewable energy anyway, since it pollutes less? Even if it cost a little more? Say $5 extra a month for 200KwH if your Electric Company offered it? It would be nice if congress passed a law that required Electric Companies to offer renewable energy so that at least you would have the option to buy renewable if you wanted to?
Although I am not a doubter of Global Warming, there is a limit to how much extra I would be willing to pay for renewable energy, even though I am a fan of renewable energy..
Fortunately the cost of production for electricity produced by wind is approximately 4 cents per kilowatt hour which makes it very competitive with energy produced by fossil fuels.
However for electricity produced by solar photovoltaic cells the cost of production is over 10 times that largely because of the huge capital costs for a system that produces relatively small amounts of electricity.
The cost of production of electricity produced by solar photovoltaic cells is over 40 cents per kilowatt thour.
The maximum amount of money that I am willing to pay for ecectricity is approximately 15 cents per kilowatt hour which makes electricity produced by wind possible, but not electricity produced by solar photovoltaic cells.
I also am not willing to go along with a subsidy for electricity produced by solar photovoltaic cells.
Any method of electricity production must stand on its own economically without subsidies.
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What are the best three sustainable construction techniques available?
Construction Techniques available should cover each of the following:
-Reducing energy consumption during construction and operation.
-Use of materials.
-Reducing and managing waste and natural resources.
Thanks in advance!!
Urban planners that are interested in achieving sustainable development or sustainable cities use various design principles and techniques when designing cities and their infrastructure.
Sustainable architecture attempts to reduce the collective environmental impacts during the production of building components, during the construction process, as well as during the lifecycle of the building (heating, electricity use, carpet cleaning etc.)
# Landscape and garden design-
Design techniques include planting trees to shade buildings from the sun or protect them from wind, using local materials, on-site composting and chipping to reduce green waste hauling, and also may involve using drought-resistant plantings in arid areas (xeriscaping) and buying stock from local growers to avoid energy use in transportation.
Hope this must be helpful.
Why is the recycling of iron neccessary for sustainable development?
Heard some people talking about it, was just wondering. Thanks!
Iron is one of the most used and recycled metals.
It takes from 2 to 10 the energy to use virgin ore over recycling. Extraction accounts for 7% of the worlds energy use. The more we recycle the less that needs to be mined.
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Doing a school project on environmental change, need a tiny bit of help?
My 3 solutions for cutting carbon dioxide emissions are:
-new biofuels (not derived from food)
-Improvements to wind, solar, or any renewable sources of energy (i have yet to pick 1 specific one)
Are there any sites or organizations that are specifically dedicated to one of the solutions?
– There are several proposals for non-plant bio-fuels, switchgrass is one and ethanol producing algae are another.
One resource I would tap into if I were you would be Wired Magazine. They are a reputable source and could be of direct us to you as well as providing interviews from experts that you could then research. Just go to the site and type in biofuels into the search
– One of my favorite improvements to wind energy is found this article I read about improving the design of the rotor blades themselves. It is pretty interesting and the rest of the site should be useful to you as well.
– The US Green Buildings Council is a great authority on green buildings and have developed a set of standards to rate buildings
Hope that helps.
What is the product of adding ethanol to petrol?
ok so I’m pretty sure that the equation goes:
C2H5OH + C8H18 —> C10H23OH
I need this for a chemistry assignment I’m doing but Im wondering if I’m completely off the mark here… Im looking for what the product of blending ethanol with petrol to about a 20% content would yeild, bear in mind this is a year/grade 12 thing so it doesnt require a super complicated answer.
you are completely completely off the mark. That chemical reaction doesn’t happen, you’ll learn why in college level organic chemistry.
The mixing of ethanol with gasoline doesn’t cause a chemical change, its just a mixture. Its like putting water into gasoline– its still gasoline and water. But at least the ethanol burns!
The goal is to have “renewable” ethanol which is derived from corn or sugar, used instead of unrenewable gasoline.
And its great, until you realize that it takes more energy to grow the corn and harvest it and turn it into ethanol than you get out of the gasoline.
If you want to stand apart from your classmates, argue AGAINST unfail ethanol subsidies which cause food prices to go through the roof while people around the world starve!
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I’m writing an essay on what farmers can do to lead the way to a sustainable energy future. Please help!?
(in case my question isn’t complete)
I’m writing an essay on what farmers can do to lead the way to a sustainable energy future/the effect it will have on farmers rural economies, and national security. So, please give me some useful information or ideas to use in my essay. Thanks :).
Farm. Farming takes a single grain of corn, and multiplies it into over 1000 grains of corn. That’s a pretty good return on investment in one year. If we can find a way to turn that corn into fuel, we’d be able to sustain itself pretty easily. We (almost) can. Ethanol is produced from corn, and can be used as a primary fuel with a few modifications to the fuel tank, fuel line, and engine. Ethanol (or similiar plant derivitives) can be turned into energy. If you net more energy in the harvest than you put into planting, weeding, cultivating, fertilizing and harvesting, then the net is sustainable.
The effect would be more jobs in the rural communities that farm (and of course less jobs in the oil fields) and a net increase in the value of farm land (with an accompanying decrease in the value of the oil fields.)
If a nation is energy self-sufficient, then it is easier for it to place its own interests over other nations. Can we afford to go to war with Saudi Arabia, when 25% of our energy comes from there? Well, if we produced all of our own fuel, then we could decide if and when to go to war against another nation. Right now, we have to balance the long-term consequences of our national security with the short-term cost of fuel for the average American.
So, if farmers produced all our energy (which really would come from the sun–to the plant–to the consumer), the farmer’s would get more money; less money would go to foreign governments; we’d be able to rattle our sabers at foreigners without a fear of reprisal, and we could fire everyone that works for the evil oil companies. (Oh, unless you happen to work for one of the evil oil companies, then you’d just be unemployed–but you’d be able to find work as a farmer.)
does anybody have an idea for an exhibit on waste management or sustainable energy?
i am in class 6th and we are having an science exhibition and the topic’s are sustainable energy or waste management. please i really need help….
Why not do both with one exhibit?
Waste to energy plants. There will always be some kind of waste so we can always burn it to make electricity.
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what is renewable energy?
I have a project on renewable energy resources, so does anyone have a good definition?
Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished). In 2008, about 19% of global final energy consumption came from renewables, with 13% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.2% from hydroelectricity. New renewables (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels) accounted for another 2.7% and are growing very rapidly. The share of renewables in electricity generation is around 18%, with 15% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewables.
Wind power is growing at the rate of 30% annually, with a worldwide installed capacity of 158 gigawatts (GW) in 2009, and is widely used in Europe, Asia, and the United States. At the end of 2009, cumulative global photovoltaic (PV) installations surpassed 21 GW and PV power stations are popular in Germany and Spain. Solar thermal power stations operate in the USA and Spain, and the largest of these is the 354 megawatt (MW) SEGS power plant in the Mojave Desert. The world’s largest geothermal power installation is The Geysers in California, with a rated capacity of 750 MW. Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world, involving production of ethanol fuel from sugar cane, and ethanol now provides 18% of the country’s automotive fuel. Ethanol fuel is also widely available in the USA.
While many renewable energy projects are large-scale, renewable technologies are also suited to rural and remote areas, where energy is often crucial in human development. Globally, an estimated 3 million households get power from small solar PV systems. Micro-hydro systems configured into village-scale or county-scale mini-grids serve many areas. More than 30 million rural households get lighting and cooking from biogas made in household-scale digesters. Biomass cookstoves are used by 160 million households.
Climate change concerns, coupled with high oil prices, peak oil, and increasing government support, are driving increasing renewable energy legislation, incentives and commercialization. New government spending, regulation and policies helped the industry weather the global financial crisis better than many other sectors.
How do eco-friendly products help the environment?
I’m writing a paper on how eco-friendly products such as household cleaners are beneficial for the environment, but I’m running out of good resourses, as well as good explanations to back up my thesis. Can someone help? Thank you
The amount of energy you consume and start using renewable energy sources, such as wind power and solar power. Sign up for Green Energy with your local power provider. If they don’t have it, then tell them to get it.
By using products made with recycled materials. Make or buy a compost bin to use your organic waste as fertilizer for your trees, shrubs, and garden.
All materials to your best ability in your local area.
There is a green movement in the country, it could be a case of too little too late, but at the least we are moving towards a nation that has a conscious about destroying the environment. The green movement has caught on with many groups and has become fashionable in some industries. The home building or home improvement industry is no exception. Many construction companies, home improvement centers and building products advertise some level of commitment towards “green” or environmentally friendly construction. Are these companies actually fulfilling their promises? That is a discussion for another day What we want to focus on is how a wood kitchen cabinet can help you become environmentally friendly. Everyone should want to reduce their “carbon footprint”. This carbon footprint is roughly defined as the amount of CO2 that you, as a living person, put into the environment each day. It can be everyday activities like driving a car, running an air conditioner, or building a house. Almost everything you do has a connection to the environment, be it direct or incidental. Taking products and using them is basically us being consumers and from this consumption we are taking from nature. This then creates pressure on the environment. So again, if I am building a house or renovating my kitchen, how do wood kitchen cabinets help lower my carbon footprint? The first thing is to define a “wood kitchen cabinet”. Unless you’re living in the nineteenth century, you’re probably not going to see a solid wood cabinet. It is not economical and it just does not make sense in the building industry.
What you are getting in wood kitchen cabinets is one of two things. Solid wood faced cabinets with paneled wood sides (these are the good cabinets) or the lesser quality cabinet that is a wood front and a particle board side (places like Home Depot and Lowe’s sell these inferior cabinets). Now that you have a definition of what really is a wood kitchen cabinet, you can then ask where I find these solid wood cabinets with paneled sides. The very best, easiest, and least expensive method to buying these cabinets is actually online. Yes, the internet cabinet websites easily beat any retail prices. (Mostly because of less over head). Finally, how am I saving the environment, if I am buying wood kitchen cabinets? The trick to saving money and the environment is the RTA kitchen cabinet. It is not a brand name, but rather a style of cabinet. RTA stands for “ready to assemble”. These cabinets are about thirty to forty percent less than an assembled cabinet and they are actually helping to cut down carbon emissions and save lumber. These all wood RTA kitchen cabinets use the entire tree, thus cutting waste. Furthermore, these cabinets save space on shipping. They are unassembled so they take up to fifty percent less space. This “space savings” contributes to less shipping; this produces less carbon dioxide. You may say that does not seem like much, but when you add up the number of shipments, this becomes a huge amount of carbon dioxide that is kept out of the atmosphere. So in the end, every little bit helps. Yes buying wood kitchen cabinets, especially RTA kitchen cabinets will help the environment. Now all we have to do is get everyone to do their own small part.
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If you took living green to an extreme how would it affect society/civilization?
Would society collapse because of whatever, or would society get happier and healthier?
I can imagine a place where sun and wind energy could efficiantly power everything needed. We all grow our own food and vegetables and so on. A lot of jobs could possibly become unessential, while others would be more in demand. You get the idea.
I’m thinking beyond the transition, to the future in a utopian “green” world. Social units would be different, because we wouldn’t have a bunch of kids to raise. Loose knit groups similar to communes might be more prevalent than the outdated “marriage”. Private transportation would be electric powered from solar arrays. Manufacturing would be centered on the recycling and retrofitting instead of manufacturing by using non- renewable resources. Centralized electric generation and power distribution systems will be a thing of the past, as we utilize solar and improved electric storage systems. Perhaps capacitors instead of chemical batteries. Technology would require skilled engineers and technicians to keep every thing working, We’d have nearly full employment as the seasonal rises and dips leveled out. Food might be grown hydroponically, in small underground areas, utilizing waste water, and waste products. Again reducing the seasonal nature of growing. I could go on until it sounded like an Isaac Asimov novel.
Do I want an electric provider that is 100% renewable energy?
Does it still work all the time? Are there any times that it goes out or doesn’t work? Are the outages the same as with traditional electric?
Hey Christy, good question. We are big renewable energy people up here. Our home generates most of its own electricity from the wind and sun. It is heated primarly by wood and solar gain, and our hot water is about 50% solar. My short answer to your question is, “maybe.”
Like a lot of people where you live, you find yourself in a position of choosing where your energy comes from more daunting than you thought it would be. I like the idea of all our power coming from a renewable source, but I don’t think it is worth doing it at the expense of other areas of our lifestyle. Should kids spend all their time after school doing homework and reading, thereby making them smarter, or should they engage in sports the remainder of the day at the expense of school work to make them stronger? The correct answer is balance. They should spend some time outside each day if possible, and engage in some sports, while leaving adequate time for school work as well. The same is true for electricity. When a power company produces power with a wind turbine, that’s good. It is added to the power grid, and the coal or oil plant down the road can throttle back and save fuel, producing less pollution. But we can’t replace the coal plants entirely, or a calm day will certainly come along and we’d be in trouble. We have an option here where you can stipulate how much of your utility power comes from renewable sources, and we pay a small fee for each 10% we ask for. What little electricity we buy from the power company now has to be 50% based on renewable sources. This way we don’t have to pay the maximum amount for 100% renewable sources, but the power company has sufficient incentive to invest in renewable sources, it’s a win win for all of us.
You should look at the options and decide what is best for you. Which companies have the best track record or reputation, what are your neighbors doing and why, and so on. Here are a few sources if you’re interested in doing more research. Good luck Christy, take care, Rudydoo
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What sort of sustainable energy sources or resources are the cleanest and most economically viable ?
Since petroleum oil is becoming less affordable and is believed by many to be the main cause for global warming, what do you think should replace petroleum oil and gas?
The most appropiate type of alternative energy source will be dependant on the application. I will assume you are refering to alternative energy for use in vehicles. Currently there are a few alternatives, some in the early phases of implementation, others a long way off. In the end different techonoligies will develop in parallel to maturity. These include:
1) Hybrid vehicles (petrolium based/electric hybrids) – very economical, they recover energy in breaking in a dynamo to charge the battery bank and a gas or diesel engin for the main power source.
2) Bio-fuel – primarly bio diesel from soya oil, or Ethanol from corn or biomas. This is sustainable but requires agrigulctural land to supply the soya, maize, etc. Regular diesel vehicles can use bio-diesel with minimal modifications required. Gas powered cars can use a gas/bioethanol blend very easily with minimal modifications required.
3) GTL (synthetic) diesel – made from natural gas that may otherwise have been flared (burnt). This is a low sulphur, low aromatic, cleaner burning diesel. Many petrolium companies including Sasol-Chevron and Shell are developing this technology. See the site http://www.sasolchevron.com/ . Regular diesel cars can use GTL diesel without any modifications required.
4) Hydrogen powered cars – based on the hydrogen fuel cell require a source of hydrogen. They have no emissions (except water) and low noise also. To make hydrogen you need energy and this would have to come from a clean source. There is a lot of water availible, but you need electricity to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Currently the only really viable source would be nuclear power. If in the distant future fusion reactors could be comercialised, they could provide the energy for battery/hydrogen powered cars. There are still some problems to solve so this is a longer term possibility. Other problems include how to store hydrogen in the vehicle safely. Its a highly flammable gas and would need to be stored under high pressures. Current vehicles would have to be significantly modified to run on hydrogen. The method of using the hydrogen would be using a hydrogen fuel cell that generates electricity from the hydrogen. The car would use an electric motor.
5) LPG (liquified propane gas) – this fuel combusts (burns) in the engine like gas. LPG is expensive to produce and transport though it could be used in modified engines.
These are the main alternatives currently availible.
What jobs can a building surveyor be engaged?
I’m now looking for companies to apply internship. but i wonder what else position in the market can a building surveryor take except quantity surveyor?
» Job description
Building surveyors provide professional advice on all aspects of property and construction. They work on site with new buildings and are concerned with the aftercare and performance of existing buildings. This is a very wide field and may include advising on various aspects of buildings at different stages, including:
The nature of the work may range from the design of large, multimillion-pound structures to modest adaptations and repairs, and sometimes includes working with buildings of architectural or historic importance.
Building surveyors may be called upon to give evidence in court in cases where building regulations have been breached and as expert witnesses on building defects and dilapidations.
» Typical work activities
Building surveyors work in many areas of property and construction so the work is diverse and rarely routine. Tasks typically involve:
* ensuring projects are completed on budget and on time;
* advising clients on schemes and projects and determining requirements;
* preparing scheme designs with costings, programmes for completion of projects and specification of works;
* preparing documents for tender and advising on appointing contractors, designers and procurement routes;
* determining the condition of existing buildings, identifying and analysing defects, including proposals for repair;
* advising on energy efficiency, environmental impact and sustainable construction;
* advising on the preservation/conservation of historic buildings;
* advising on management and supervision of maintenance of buildings;
* dealing with planning applications and advising on property legislation and building regulations;
* assessing and designing buildings to meet the needs of people with disabilities;
* advising on construction design and management regulations;
* negotiating dilapidations (when there is a legal liability for a property’s state of disrepair);
* carrying out feasibility studies;
* advising on the health and safety aspects of buildings;
* advising on boundary and rights of light disputes and party wall procedures;
* preparing insurance assessments and claims.
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How much electricity will it take to feed the world’s estimated population in 2050?
My question is this: How much electricity would vertical farming take to feed the worlds 9billion people in 2050?
The artificial lights take up a high amount of energy but i’m wondering how much. Condescending question: Would all the renewable energy available that we are technologically capable of right now suffice for the artificial light we would use in 2050 for our food? If not, if our efficiency on these renewable energies grew to suffice the demand of the light how much would our efficiency need to increase?
I have no idea how much electricity it would take. I wonder, though, if it would be better to focus on the demand side of this question. How much electricity could the world save by emphasizing population control, rather than reproduction?
How much of the World’s energy consumption is renewable?
I know that the World‘s Energy Consumption is 483.6 Q, and the United States energy consumption is 101.55. The United States renewable energy consumption is 6.81 Q.
I can’t find any information the world‘s renewable energy consumption. Does anybody know what it is?
A SOURCE WILL BE REQUIRED FOR VERIFICATION AND BEST ANSWER!
I remember hearing it was roughly worldwide about 1.5% sorry cant provide a link.
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What are the conventional sources of energy?
What are the conventional sources of energy?
What are its advantages and disadvantages?
Conventional energy is energy generated from natural resources—such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides and geothermal heat—which are renewable (naturally replenished).conventional energy technologies include solar power, wind power, hydroelectricity, micro hydro, biomass and biofuels
they can have a sustainable yield
we can’t rely on the resources….
What energy efficient materials would you select to construct your house?
You have $500,000 to construct a sustainable house for your family – you already own the land, so no money goes towards lot purchase. What energy efficient materials would you select to construct your house? What energy and water saving features would you include in your house? Which direction would your house face? How will you handle waste water to reduce water pollution and water usage? What would make your house unique and sustainable? Do a little research before answering this – incorporate appropriate new technologies into your home to make it energy efficient.
IN DETAILS PLEASE (it’s for an essay paper) Thank you in advance!
Heck with energy efficiency. I’d build it out of materials that can’t be eaten by termites (and other insects), and materials that don’t photodegrade.
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What kind of college degree should you pursue to go into the sales field of renewable energy? ?
Where I live the universities do not offer degrees in renewable energy, but do offer classes in it. I know that going into engineering is a plus but I am honestly not a “technical” person. I’d do much better in sales (in financial sales now for 5 years). Any advice would be appreciated.
Illinois State Universtiy offers a bachelor’s degree program in Renewable Energy. It’s a 2 part program, technical and policy. I would check out their website http://www.tec.ilstu.edu/renewable_energy/index.shtml
What would be a better long term career, An electrician or renewable energy technician?
I’m 22 and I need to do something with my life. The salaries of the two careers are around the same, but I want a job that will last. Renewable energy is suppose to be big in the future, but I’m sure how many jobs will be available. Any suggestions?
Go with electrician first. The chances are great that those skills will carry over into other things like electronics. You can still take classes for renewable energy technician at night after work. There is no need to end your education simply because you have gained a career.
Electrician is a proven and lasting career field. Go with it.
Renewable Energy still has a long way to go before it can offer you a promising future you can depend on.
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Could we transistion to 40% sustainable energy in the next 50 years? How?
If we shifted our investments from oil, bloated military spending etc… Isn’t solar doable for every home now if we make policies to bring the prices down- like we did for the auto (govt funded roads, oil policy), the computer chip, the Internet etc….
We could do it in 2 to 5.
Comprehensive Energy Plan To Lower Gasoline Prices
This is how we will do it. And this why we will do it.
This country has so much under used industrial capacity in our Auto Plants, Airplane Plants, Steel Plants and Electronics Plants to make America Energy Independent in 2 to 5 years. We can build enough windmills and solar power and wave generation energy plants to replace 90% of all of the electricity generated by COAL and NATURAL GAS.
For under $400 Billion we could build 400,000 windmills.
The Coal and Natural Gas saved by Green Replaceable Elecrrical Generation can now be used to make fuel for cars, trucks, busses, boats and airplanes, and or plastics, chemicals, fertilizers and pharmacuticals.
We need a comprehensive plan that puts America back to work in endeavors that benefit 99% of America.
Howard Scott Pearlman
Trading in Bioethanol is done in a T1 and T2 product. What is the difference?
Trading in Ethanol for delivery in Rotterdam is done as T1 ethanol FOB Rotterdam, or T2 ethanol FOB Rotterdam. What is the difference between the two?
USD 0.20USD0.25 – 0.45Ethanol production cost48 litres Et/ha/day15 litresEt/ha/dayphotosynthetic efficiency(carbohydrate sythesis)28 – 30 % of sweet sorghum30 % of caneBagasse availability35 – 40 % of cane100%Fertiliser65 – 70 % of cane100%Water requirement45 – 55 litres / tonne of stalks68 – 74litres/tonneConventional ethanol yield9 – 11 %11 – 13 %Sugar content17 – 22 tonnes x twice/year= 34 – 44 tonnes28 – 32 tonnesYield per Acre3.5 – 4 months(Grown twice / year)10-11 monthsCrop CycleSweet SorghumSugarcanePropertiesSugarcane Vs Sweet Sorghum
1205000100001500020000250003000035000SimaKellerMadhuraPraj1Ge2Ge2WrayCowleyTS1VarietyYieldstemskg/haT1T2Harvest of sweet sorghum at different growth stagesT1 – Boot stage T2 – Soft dough stageSweet Sorghum Trials at UNZA (1)
13051015202530T1T2T3T4Growth StageBrix%SimaKellerMadhuraPraj 1GE2GE3WrayCowleyTS1Harvest of Sweetsorghum days afterplantingT1 – 100 – 110 daysT2 – 110 – 120 daysT3 – 120 – 140 daysT4 – 140 – 160 daysAccumulation of sugar in different varieties ofsweet sorghum at UNZA Farm.Sweet Sorghum Trials at UNZA (2)
14Mass Ratios and Brix for Different SS Varieties0.0010.0020.0030.0040.0050.0060.0070.0080.00123456789VarietyPercentageBagasse to SSS RatioJuice to SSS RatioBrix1- Sima, 2- TS1, 3-Madhura, 4-Praj 1, 5- GE2,6-GE3, 7-Wray, 8-Cowlley, 9-KellerSweet Sorghum Trials at UNZA (3)
15OBSERVATIONS…Average juice = 35%, with low varianceAverage bagasse = 65%Average brix = 18.2%, max = 25.31%, min = 12.52%Suitable brix for ethanol production = 15 – 20%Varieties with highest ethanol potential (both highjuice and brix)Wray (Juice 35.14%, Brix 25.31 %)GE2 (Juice 36.96%, Brix 21.66%)Sweet Sorghum Trials at UNZA (4)
16Potential Export MarketsRegional deficit at E10:> 0.74billion litres at E10 (present)> 1.0 billion litres (2015).International:EU?Asia?
17KEY CHALLENGES & ISSUES TO CONSIDERNo policy on mandatory blendingNo standards developed for ethanol as a transportfuelOver 80% of land is customary (under chiefs!)Lack of policy on bioenergy outgrower schemeswith extension service backupInadequate supporting infrastructureAnnouncement of oil reserves in north westernZambia. What next?Export potential faced with international tradebarriers
18CONCLUDING REMARKSZambia has great potential produce bio-ethanol forsustainable developmentThe climate, soils and area gives it high potential togrow sugarcane and sweet sorghum to exportethanol regionally and internationallyNeed for a condusive regulatory, fiscal and policyframeworkLand locked: need for regional linkagesSADC biofuels market can benefit from expansion ofZambia’s ethanol industry due to centre location
19CEEEZCentre forEnergy, Environment andEngineering Zambia LimitedTHANKS ARE EXTENDED TO:•Global Forum on Sustainable Energy (GFSE)• Austrian Development Agency and Austrian Energy Agency• Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida)• European Commission DG-Research• Common Fund for Commodities (CFC)• Partners in the Cane Resources Network for Southern Africa (CARENSA)EUROPEAN COMMISSIONResearch Directorate-GeneralScientific Coordinatorwww.carensa.net
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What do you think of this scenario for a Sci-Fi movie?
It’s 2507, and a small group of civilized, attractive, ethnically-diverse people are holed up over a coal mine in Antarctica, the very last fossil fuels on the Earth. They’re holding off barbarian hordes, and when their stronghold falls, it will be the end of civilization.
“Oh what will we do?” they ask their supercomputer. “Oh why didn’t mankind begin developing renewable energy resources back in the 21st century?”
The supercomputer suggests a plan: they will build a time machine, and use it to send a robot back in time. Being old movie buffs, they make the robot look exactly like Arnold Schwartznegger. The robot is built and sent back to 1990, and arrives in the high-security area of a government lab. At first, the guards think it’s an attack, but they hit the robot with everything they’ve got (lots of attractive explosions, etc.) and nothing can touch it. Eventually the robot convinces some scientists that it’s from the future.
The robot calls a secret conference of top scientists, politicians, and religious leaders. Basically, these guys:
The robot pleads for world leaders to begin developing renewable resources. “The people won’t go for it” says the governor of Texas, “we can’t make it happen.”
“Wait a minute” says James Hansen, one of the climate scientists. What if we faked the data, to make it look as if fossil fuels were destroying the Earth’s climate by making it too hot?”
“But we know that the Earth’s climate is just natural cycles” says Michael Mann, “we’ll never be able to get anyone to believe that the tiny contribution of human CO2 could possibly affect the whole world’s climate!”
But Naomi Oreskes says “We could fake all the refereed literature on climate. We have control of all the journals, we can just make up anything we like!”
Richard Lindzen says “But you have to have a little controversy, so it doesn’t look fake!”
And so the great global warming hoax is born. The world leaders enslave the common people of the world by depriving them of fossil fuels. But in the end, it’s worth it.
Back to 2507: The whole future changes. The barbarian hordes disappear, and our beautiful civilized human find themselves in a paradise of plentiful renewable resources.
Ruel the Midianite: the people need to be enslaved for dramatic tension—otherwise the ending is too happy. Maybe the time period could be made 1000 years (of tribulation followed by Earthly paradise)—always good to get in some pseudo-Biblical allusion.
The real Arnold is detained by security forces and sent to a Spa/Gym, and spends the rest of his life lifting. The robot replaces him, and nobody notices. The robot winds down his movie career with increasingly silly movies and then becomes Govenor of California. The people of California are the first to be enslaved.
The secret conference is actually held 5 years after the robot appears, so Bush is governor of Texas. Inhofe is not invited, by mistake, and eventually succumbs to apoplexy.
You have either read too much scifi…or my guess, not nearly enough. Read some Heinlein, I think one of his stories was ver similar to what you propose.
Help with renewable energy resources in France?
I’ve been set a task to find out about renewable energy in France. What do they use most, how long have they been using it for? Stuff like that. Thanks! 🙂
Use different search engines and different search criteria, each engine has a different algorythm that will produce more of fewer results.
France does use about 75 to 80 percent nuclear power to produce electricity. This has been a statistic that some pro nuclear groups use to try support how safe it is- but no mention of the protests and riots over the waste storage. When was the last time you heard about the fiasco over Germany’s own plans for nuclear waste disposal? And they have a vocal opposition to it as well, and you virtually never hear of it.
I am opposed to nuclear energy myself, Chernobyl saw to that. But short of a failure of equipment on that scale, the US “news media” is heavily filtered and censored, you would never hear of the smaller accidents that happen. And that is what the Pro-nuclear lobby groups are trying to capitalize on. It has been about a generation since that accident, so what else can we expect?
You might get some additional information indirectly, refocus on EU and European Union, those statistics might be more readily found, and would be broken down by member country. Also search the UN website as they sometimes collect that data. Http://www.un.org
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What are the real battle lines and angles between our energy security issues?
America has been facing a national security issue over energy for some time now. One group proposed a simple, seemingly harmless solution: Develop, deploy and implement alternative energies that would eliminate our dependence on foreign oil. As well as take a huge chunk out of our trade deficit and help the environment.
Another group wants to use our strategic reserves here at home(drill baby drill) to offset foreign dependency, reduce trade deficit and bust OPEC price controls.
Another group wanted to invade Iraq to privatize its oil industry(one the world’s largest) to maximize output and dump oil on the market to bust OPEC price controls. And thereby continue onto other OPEC price hawks like Iran and Venezuela.
My question is what are the REAL issues here? The third group’s motivation is obvious. Does the first group truly motivated by a desire to resolve our energy security issues and solve our trade deficit and environmental issues? Or is there also an internationalist angle of taking the biggest(and richest) oil consumer out of the game to give developing countries more access to oil? And to relieve developing oil producing countries of higher quotas to make their reserves more sustainable?
And what of the 2nd group? Is this really an alternative albeit temporary solution? Or is it just a bogus herring by the oil industry and investors to make a bunch of money by looting our strategic energy reserves which are set aside for real crisis?
Any insight would be helpful.
Matthew, this is a dynamite and insightful question. Please note that our strategic oil reserve is not the same as oil in the ground.
The real issue is that people don’t like change, or to feel like their livelihoods are being controlled by others. I think we should drill now as a short-term stop gap measure, even if that won’t produce flowing oil for several years; and continue to develop alternative energy sources; the most economically viable will win, and those who continue to develop better solutions will be the financial winners. We may see an evolution of technologies that will last for a long period of time.
How can industries change to reduce their environmental impact in relation to acid rain?
How can industries operate in more sustainable ways to reduce their environmental impact in relation to acid rain?
Best answer gets 10 points!
Two main things to concentrate on to reduce a companies Carbon Footprint or output-
1. Co2 output due to the manufacturing or transport process.
Review ways to reduce pollutants that are released into the air and either filter exhaust or limit and compound run time. For transportation, consolidation of shipments and lighting weights can help reduce pollutants and save money.
2. Reducing “grid” dependency.
Energy that is deprived from coal processing is a huge culprit! One simple solution is to replace the facility lighting to an energy efficient system. The reduction in carbon footprint reduction from energy efficiency, can actually be measured.
Then look into all energy savings, such as electronic downtime drain. Again-these changes, also reap big savings for this company as well- seems like a no brainer!
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Will more jobs will be gained than lost by transitioning the country away from fossil fuels?
Will more jobs will be gained than lost by transitioning the country away from fossil fuels and toward cleaner, renewable energy sources?
Some say this is America’s key to remaining number one, yet most Conservatives do not agree and continue to push oil as the number one source. Is it time to drastically change America’s thirst for oil?
No one is listening to Cons anyway. They are still stuck in the 19th century and everybody knows our dependance on oil is a national security issue and that for America to remain the dominate power in the world we had better get with the program and get off of our dependance on fossil fuels. Democrats now have the opportunity to pass legislation to do just that and I hope they act swiftly upon it, else China and others will soon pass us as number one. They are rapidly working on their own green energy and our probably ahead of us already!
What type of engineers work in the field of sustainable energy?
Im considering doing a Building Services and Sustainable Engineering degree, what kind of jobs do you think it will open up for me?
Will i be able to work with sustainable/renewable energies, such as solar panels, wind turbines etc? or would i need a different type of engineering course to do that?
Any more information on engineering would be more than helpfull, im not 100% sure whether i want to do an engineering degree or not.
From my own knowledge, jobs open for Sustainable Engineering degree are Electrical Engineer, Project Engineer, Project Admin., Project Manager etc.
Some consultancies provide solar installation courses, but I am not sure if it is what you want to do.
And sustainable engineering is a vast concept, you may need to choose your major orientation later, like wind energy, bioenergy, or solar…
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zero carbon interview questions wanted
I want to write an article on zero carbon homes in the UK, whether the government target of 2016 will be met or not. I intend to interview professionals in the building and construction industry. I am currently arranging an appointment with RIBA environmental president and the current president.. However, my journalism skills are very weak at the moment. I was wondering whether if someone can give me any idea on questions to ask.
I have ideas as in their views on the scheme, what they intend to do to meet the target etc. but I need more questions. Also can someone tell me where I can find information on the German Passivhaus scheme. As in how they set the target, and how they met it etc.
Your help will be much appreciated.
U may look here for all tht u need regarding zero carbon homes:
all questions tht u want for zero carbon homes are here:
The energy efficient German / Austrian PassivHaus standard is recognised by the Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH) as one design approach for dwellings that goes some considerable way towards the government’s ‘Zero Carbon’ target, as TRADA’s new Construction Briefing explains.
The PassivHaus standard is considered by the Department of Communities and Local Government (CLG) to be broadly equivalent to Code Level 4 in the CSH. It recognises that the principles underlying the PassivHaus approach have been driven by the simple desire to drastically reduce the demand for energy in buildings, yet they also achieve an enviable build quality that UK designers and housebuilders might well wish to study.
The following clear targets are set for each dwelling:
The building must not use more than 15kWh/m2/year in heating energy
The specific heat load for the heating source at the desired temperature must be less than 10W/m2
Air leakage levels at 50Pa must not exceed 0.6 times the house volume / hour (approx. 1m3/hr/m2 @ 50Pa)
Total primary energy consumption (heating, hot water and appliance electricity) must not exceed 120kWh/m2/year.
PassivHaus principles cover both new and upgraded buildings and have been broadened beyond dwellings to include educational and commercial buildings. Another major difference between PassivHaus and the CSH is that although the scheme is voluntary, it has grown in popularity particularly because funding mechanisms have been set up to make it commercially attractive to the developer and to give financial support for training to architects and others involved in the build process.
And in true German fashion, the scheme is carefully monitored at every stage. An architect trained in PassivHaus principles and practice designs the dwelling in accordance with all PassivHaus requirements. The design must be successfully appraised using the PHPP (Passive House Development Package). PHPP is a software program similar in concept to SAP2005, designed to consider many aspects of the dwelling’s energy performance at the same time. It seeks to achieve a much higher level of energy performance than that set out in Part L 2006, however, and concerns itself with a wider range of issues.
The PassivHaus Institut (PHI) double-checks the design calculations using PHPP. Products certified by PHI for the external envelope, windows and ventilation systems are then chosen by the architect / client. An air tightness test is carried out at an optimum time in the build process.
The architect is responsible for the Quality Control on site and specific checks must include the following:
Design of heat bridges – using bridge-free connection details or calculating the losses at heat bridges
Design of airtight connection details
Design of all heating, plumbing and electrical systems
Installation of heat free bridges
Installation of insulation layers which are continuous and without air pockets
Installation of joint details and service penetrations for air tightness
Adjustment of ventilation in normal service.
Although there is flexibility in the design of homes and the materials chosen, there are, however, a number of significant constraints in translating the PassivHaus design into a workable scheme for the UK, as the TRADA Construction Briefing explains.
Many within the UK construction industry would agree that we are not building to a sufficient quality to meet even current minimum standards within Part L for energy conservation. The important points about the PassivHaus standard in relation to quality are that:
The actual quality of the building is probably related more to what cannot be seen than by what we can see
The high quality of design and build are not just ‘nice to have’ but fundamentally necessary to achieving the low energy usage
The acid test to for the homeowner will not be whether it looks high quality but whether the quarterly energy bill is near to zero. This test is entirely objective and indisputable!
In short, we would need a very long awaited cultural revolution in design and site practice if we were to adopt the PassivHaus approach, as this would mean embracing the methodical and on-going training, auditing and testing on site which are necessary components of the PassivHaus process.
All ur answers regarding Passivhaus are here:
hope i’ve helped!gudluck!!
WHERE DID UNEP FAIL IN ITS STUDY OF GLOBAL WARMING & CLIMATE CHANGE?
UNEP & its scientists then blame transportation & industries as the primary source of pollution. And the world’s defense mechanisms are emission reduction, sustainable development, clean air act, ecological solid waste management act, mitigation & adaptation, etc. But these are subjective beliefs of wishful thinking, not realistic perception & objective reality of how nature works. This is because UNEP & its scientists undermined nature, failing to render better study before & after the treaty was conceived in 1997. Following are scientific grounds which would invalidate the treaty, among others, to wit:
1.Their study did not identify the stages as to how CO2 gas originated. The process of reverse transformation of gas from solid state (biology & physics) is necessary in order to determine the solid matter. Since the world claims that CO2 gas came from fossil fuels, then the origin is plants. To capture pure carbon, the appropriate method is to make natural gases work effectively (via organic matter cycling than carbon reduction).
2.Their study did not consider two classes of organisms. One that takes up CO2 & releases O2 (plants & forests) and the other that takes O2 & releases CO2 (man, animals, birds & sea creatures). If we devoid earth with plants & forests, the other organisms suffer.
3.Their study did not evaluate plants (biology) &/or reactants (chemistry) as possible means to reduce GHG. Concentrating on nature’s secondary process via photosynthesis and chemosynthesis, these will ultimately balance excessive GHG energy as waste gas from all emissions & respirations, conducive for mankind’s primary living.
4.Their study did not identify an abiotic environment which would best suit or gain control to store solid matter (instead of storing in gaseous state) with pure carbon & other carbon compounds (biology, chemistry & physics).
5.Their study did not consider the might of decay microorganisms to send off large volume of CO2 in the atmosphere. Microbes can pollute in billions of CO2 a DAY per gram in solid wastes (like molds growing in spoiled foods), far more than billions (or even trillions) of CO2 a YEAR in tons of burnt coal & oil from transportation & industries since decomposing (or CO2-emitting) microbes are dominant during extreme hot environment (at temperatures between 25-40 degrees Celsius) than beneficial photosynthetic microorganisms (at temperatures between 20-25 degrees Celsius).
6.Their study did not consider that warming has intensified not only due to emissions from transportation & industries but rather due to organic decay from massive desertification of land (losing its capability to photosynthesize).
7.Their study did not consider that if CO2 is higher (claimed at 350 ppm or more), then its leverage with O2 has been impaired, meaning O2 is lower or weaker. In other words, O2 has reached a point of shortage or loss (temporarily) below the standard science record of 20-21%.
8.Their study did not consider O2 as a neutralizer of elements & compounds, taking action with another, being the common denominator of solids, liquids & gases.
9.And finally, their study did not invest on the biological service of CO2 as food and biological necessity of O2 as ingredients to sustain growth & preserve life respectively.
This is a grave & serious fault of UNEP & its scientists, causing faulty analysis & reasoning. The worse of it, IPCC acted as accomplice by introducing its false science too to favor carbon emission reduction and cover up the fraud in science.
Not to be rude.. But have you or anyone else that will read this think about what the world has been doing since the last ice age?? The world has been getting warmer.. The earths temp. Will cycle and continue to do so.. Maybe humans contribute to the effects of the warming.. But the earth will continue to get warmer with or without us.. You would think that the human race would see this and adjust instead of trying to fight something that cannot be changed..who knows maybe overall man has prolonged the global warming effect that we are seeing now.. Or have we increased it??
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What decent jobs can you get with a certificate 4 in renewable energy?
Not istalling or maintaining solar systems, but other things?
Although it is difficult to predict the future in these uncertain economic times, there are already many green energy related jobs. Here is a short list:
• Solar Lab Technician
• Solar and PV Installer/Roofer
• Solar Fabrication Technician
• Marketer of Solar Technologies
• Financial Analysts
• Solar Operations Engineer
• Solar Appliances Installer
• Architect (designing solar friendly homes)
What are RECs,Renewable Energy Certificates?
We produce green energy and we will get RECs for each 1000 kWh of elec. produced. What are RECs and what are they worth in us dollars?
Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs), also known as Green tags, Renewable Energy Credits, Renewable Electricity Certificates, or Tradable Renewable Certificates (TRCs), are tradable, non-tangible energy commodities in the United States that represent proof that 1 megawatt-hour (MWh) of electricity was generated from an eligible renewable energy resource (renewable electricity). Solar Renewable Energy Certificates (SRECs) are RECs that are specifically generated by solar energy.
These certificates can be sold and traded or bartered, and the owner of the REC can claim to have purchased renewable energy. According to the U.S. Department of Energy’s Green Power Network, RECs represent the environmental attributes of the power produced from renewable energy projects and are sold separate from commodity electricity.
In states that have a REC program, a green energy provider (such as a wind farm) is credited with one REC for every 1,000 kWh or 1 MWh of electricity it produces (for reference, an average residential customer consumes about 800 kWh in a month). A certifying agency gives each REC a unique identification number to make sure it doesn’t get double-counted. The green energy is then fed into the electrical grid (by mandate), and the accompanying REC can then be sold on the open market.
Rices depend on many factors, such as the vintage year the RECs were generated, location of the facility, whether there is a tight supply/demand situation, whether the REC is used for RPS compliance, even the type of power created. Solar renewable energy certificates or SRECs, for example, tend to be more valuable in the 16 states that have set aside a portion of the RPS specifically for solar energy. This differentiation is intended to promote diversity in the renewable energy mix which in an undifferentiated, competitive REC market, favors the economics and scale achieved by wind farms. Current spot prices for SRECs in most states with solar portfolio standards can be viewed at SRECTrade. For example, prices in July, 2010 ranged from $255/SREC in Delaware to as high as $665/SREC in New Jersey.
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Is it true that global warming only started in 2008?
Obama and Gore have been sending jets to leave chemtrails since 2008 just so they could make billions by putting taxpayer money towards their renewable energy companies.
Renewable energy is Joe cell, chemtrails started 1996.
Are you willing to pay an extra 30-40% on your electric bill if it’s 100% renewable energy?
I am moving to Dallas, and in Dallas they have like 20 different electric companies and some offer 100% renewable energy such as Green Mountain. I come to the conclusion that the cost is about 30-40% more than ones who don’t use renewable energy. Do you think paying the difference is worth it?
The question to answer is:
Can you afford to be so generous and are your ideals worth this sacrifice?
Answer that and you have your answer.
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Would solar panels on the roof of every building solve our energy problems?
I know a few people around here who have used government grants to help install solar panels on their roofs. Given that this is the UK and sunshine is a rare commodity here, they still manage to produce more energy than they use, and actually get a small rebate each year from selling off excess electricity back to the National Grid (our national power infrastructure).
Are there reasons why this can’t be adopted globally? Are solar panels difficult to mass-produce (I imagine they use a few rare-earth elements in there somewhere) or is it just down to a lack of willpower to embrace sustainable energy? How well would the technology scale up from powering individual households to powering energy-hungry manufacturing industries?
I’m not expecting an answer to all those, but I’d like to hear opinions from anyone who might have some knowledge of how it works.
Right now, we don’t have a good large-scale energy storage technology, and we can’t run HGVs or aeroplanes or container ships on solar panels. (at least not the current big heavy ones)
Having a lot of solar panels feeding the grid requires a lot of gas-turbine power stations to make up the difference and respond to rapid fluctuations in demand and supply.
In principle, we might be able to generate hydrogen during the day and use fuel-cells at night, or
run aircraft on liquid hydrogen.
Thinking of changing my major from International Business?
I am currently enrolled in college and am thinking of changing my major from International Business, to Global Marketing or Global Finance. Which major offers better pay, working conditions, etc? . I would like to get into sustainable energy, but I do not think I have the math aptitude for engineering. Which of these degrees is in more demand these days?
I believe International Business is in demand itself but Finance in general is in high demand so long as you’re from a good school or one that’s well-connected.
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What are some creative uncommon, creative renewable energy sources?
for my science class exam, I must assemble a portfolio of 4 types of renewable energy technologies, it cannot be solar or wind. I must explain whether the technologies are feasible or not. I must explain the pros & cons of utilizing this type of energy, whether it be environmental, economic, social or political. I can only find wind and solar and we’re not allowed to use those. I know of like cranks and generators but I still need more. So can anyone give me any other good ideas for renewable energy technologies?……….. I have until friday.
A hundred mile long cable attached to a satellite assembled to allow the cable to drag through the Earth’s magnetic field would produces massive amount of energy that could be turned in micro waves, beamed to a receiver on the ground and distributed over the already established grid. A series of small wind turbines arrayed alongside freeways would be turned by the wind energy produced by moving traffic. Using underwater ocean currents to turn turbines is a proven technology and a future use of matter/anti matter interchange is technically feasible as that technology is developed. The best way to improve the energy picture is to use far less of it. We really don’t need all night/every night advertising lights….all that does is burn up massive quantities of fossil fuels for no reason. Of course folks that sell fossil fuels would lose money, and electric companies that sell electricity would lose money as well…but that’s another factor that you might consider bringing up in the discussion.
Is a renewable energy tech. a person who would fix the windmills and such?
I am looking to go into renewable energy, I want to be the person who goes out and fix the windmills and such, what is the name of that career path?
Its called a Wind Tech. It is supposed to be a fast growing occupation with good compensation like a $75,000 a year salary and a company truck.
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