Your Questions About Sustainable Energy Without The Hot Air

Robert asks…

How many 75-gallon barrels of waste corn oil should be collected for 1 entire year? moreinfo below?

Methane (CH4), or natural gas, is commonly used all over the world as a source of energy and fuel. Many homes in the United States combust methane to generate heat for hot water heaters, central air heaters, and is used extensively in gas powered stoves and ovens. Currently methane is mass-produced in a variety of different ways, many of which are not sustainable or environmentally friendly. Many people have started producing their own methane in a variety of different ways. Even though most of these methods are not very efficient, they can be somewhat sustainable if reclaimed or waste materials are used from local sources. One way to “home-brew” methane in a decently sustainable way is to collect waste vegetable oil from various local restaurants and “pyrolyze” it with high heat (typically ~700 K) in the presence of oxygen. Pyrolysis is a very similar chemical reaction to combustion; however, it differs in the types of products it makes.

Corn oil, a commonly used vegetable oil at fast-food restaurants, is composed of approximately 65% by mass linoleic acid (HC18H31O2) and 35% by mass oleic acid (HC18H33O2). In reality there are many other components of corn oil, but these are the main ingredients. The un-balanced reactions below show the pyrolysis of linoleic and oleic acids, respectively, in the presence of oxygen.

HC18H31O2(l) + O2(g) CH4(g) + CO2(g) + H2O(g) + H2(g)

HC18H33O2(l) + O2(g) CH4(g) + CO2(g) + H2O(g) + H2(g)

This year approximately 580. kg of methane in the home was used for heating, hot water, and stove/oven use. How many 75-gallon barrels of waste corn oil should be collect to produce methane for 1 entire year? The density of oleic and linoleic acids are very similar, you may assume both are 0.90 g/cm3. Additionally, you may assume the percent yield of methane production from corn oil pyrolysis is 100% (in really it is much smaller). To make this problem easier, you may assume 65% of the methane produced comes from linoleic acid and 35% of the methane produced comes from oleic acid.

admin answers:

President Bush thought this process was some sort of answer.

Wrong!!

It does a number of things that make it impractical.

1. It prevents people from being fed. Every acre that you put into corn production for inefficient SUV’s is 1 acre that cannot be used for feeding starving people, including some Americans.

2. It takes a huge amount of energy to change either of those two hydrocarbons into a simple chemical like CH4 is frightening to calculate. 700o is about 500oC which is hotter than a kitchen oven gets and that is not a trivial consideration.

3. Can you imagine 330 million people all running around to get wasted cooking oil? I can’t either.

4. Not 100% efficient?? My, what is the efficiency?

OK I’m done with my rant. Sorry. I can’t see how you can do this problem without knowing some Chemistry. I think I’m in the math section. I would say we have to balance the equation and proceed, but it scares me to think you may not know enough to go on. There are an infinite number of ways to balance this thing. Here’s one.

HC18H31O2(l) + 12.5O2(g)  6CH4(g) + 12CO2(g) + 3H2O(g) + H2(g) If this is the actual process, it means that 1 mole of linoleic acid produces 6 moles of Methane.

So the mass of the methane is 580 kg * 0.65 = 377 kg
The number of moles of methane = 377000/16 = 23562 moles of methane.
That means that you need 3927 moles of linoleic acid. Just how many grams is that?

1+18*12 + 31 +2*16 = 280 grams per mole

3927 * 280 = 1099560 grams
1099560 / 0.9 = 1221733 cc I take you are using US gallons in this.

1000 cc = 1 L
1221733 cc = x Liters = 1221 L

There are 3.78 L in a US gallon

1221L/3.78 L/gal = 323 gallons

1 barrel = 75 gallons
x barrels = 323 gallons

x = 4.31 barrels.

I’ll give you the second equation balanced. You can work out the rest of it for yourself. Just follow my numbers.

HC18H33O2(l) + 11O2(g) ==> 6CH4(g) + 12CO2(g) + 4H2O(g) + H2(g)

Edit
===
Sorry, I thought you were posting from the United States. My rant holds true for any country that produces corn.

Paul asks…

How might an introduced plant species kill native plant species? ?

A. An introduced plant’s rapid growth can deprive native plants of sunlight.
B. An introduced plant’s rapid growth can deprive native plants of food.
C. An introduced plant can cause soil loss from erosion.
D. An introduced plant’s rapid growth can deprive native plants of oxygen.

2. What is one of the greatest threats to biodiversity on Earth?
A. habitat destruction
B. loss of drinking water
C. decrease in food supply
D. pollution

3. In which biome is biodiversity most threatened?
A. tropical rain forest
B. grassland
C. taiga
D. wetland

4. The Alaskan pipeline is raised up on “legs” in areas along caribou migration paths. Why was it built this way?
A. to prevent damage to the pipeline by caribou
B. to prevent harm to the caribou by the pipeline
C. to prevent habitat fragmentation
D. to prevent caribou from migrating to the wrong habitat

5. Why might an introduced animal species overrun native species in an ecosystem?
A. Its population size is smaller than those of native species.
B. It is more energy efficient, so it eats less food.
C. It is a predator of the native species.
D. It often has no natural enemies.

6. What does the Endangered Species Act do?
A. It provides food for endangered species.
B. It protects organisms that are near extinction and their environments.
C. It protects populations of animals from predators.
D. It protects endangered plant species only.

7. Which term describes the practice of managing resources so that current needs are met without harming future generations?
A. species introduction
B. sustainable development
C. habitat fragmentation
D. biomagnification

8. Why does clear cutting lead to a loss of biodiversity?
A. Lumber companies kill the animals in an area when they cut trees.
B. An entire ecosystem is destroyed when all the trees in an area are cut down.
C. Too much sunlight enters the area after the trees are cut down.
D. Tree seedlings cannot be produced.

9. Which of the following techniques can help prevent populations of slow-growing fish from being depleted?
A. fishing gear review
B. rotation
C. fishing bans
D. harvest reduction

10. Which law regulates emissions from automobiles and industrial factories?
A. Clean Water Act
B. Endangered Species Act
C. Clean Air Act
D. National Environmental Policy Act

admin answers:

1.) A & B
2.) A
3.) I am not sure. The answer may be C or D even though A gets the most publicity.
4.) C – Actually the Alaskan pipeline is on legs to prevent the hot oil from melting the permafrost of the tundra.
5.) D
6.) B
7.) B
8.) B
9.) C or D
10.) C

Do check my answers against your text and class notes, because I may not be completely right, according to your class.

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Your Questions About Renewable Energy Group

Jenny asks…

help with senior capstone project ideas?

I want to do something related to HVAC, Renewable Energy, Heat Pumps, Solar area but am having trouble with ideas.

I have about 2.5 months in a group of 3 people to create something.

Any ideas would help. This is the hardest part, getting the idea.

admin answers:

From a practical standpoint, may I suggest finding the highest return on investment on some common home upgrades. These may not be true, but will give you an idea, IE if I spend 15 years in my home and have solar panels installed on day one, I will see x thousands saved. Or say if I had blown in insulation in the attic improving my R factor by x on day 1 and I stay in the home for x years I will see a return on investment of yyyy.

From the engineering perspective this project could be really simple because its just looking up data, but from the actual applicable perspective it could be amazing. The true value will be taking these data points, comparing them, and then providing PRACTICAL REAL WORLD advice. Set up a website. Depending where you are located you could correct for climate, IE for the US, up North Solar Panels ROI wont be as high, as if you were in the Florida Keys

There isn’t that much physically you could do with this concept, but the data should be out there to provide useful results. Bonus points from me for providing home owners with actual useful data.

Steven asks…

What funding/grants are available for energy efficient businesses?

I would like to start a privately owned “Green” business that utilizes energy efficient appliances and solar panel energy. I am also a woman teaming up with an individual of minority decent. I know there are funding possibilities for such things, but I don’t know where to start. Please advise!

admin answers:

The grants given for businesses are for those who seek to research and discover renewable energy sources — not for simply using environmentally friendly appliances and solar panel energy

It is hard to find grants to start a business. Unlike the myths that some perpetuate, federal government and even private foundations hardly give grant money for starting a for-profit business.

One possible exception is for companies developing or exporting agricultural goods, including food and forest product. Another exception could be the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) or Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs http://www.sba.gov/aboutsba/sbaprograms/sbir/index.html , which fund the research and development of technological innovation that meets specific government needs.

Your best bet actually will be from the states if they offer grant programs for women (or any other special interest groups — minorities, women, disabled, veterans, etc). Or check with non profit organizations, particularly women organizations if they offer grants. Examples include

Iowa Women’s Foundation http://www.iawf.org/
New Mexico Women’s Foundation http://www.nmwf.org/guidelines.html

Even SBA does NOT give out grants. From the SBA website http://www.sba.gov/mostrequesteditems/CON_FAQ2.html

“The U.S. Small Business Administration does not offer grants to start or expand small businesses, although it does offer a wide variety of loan programs. (See http://www.sba.gov/financing for more information) While SBA does offer some grant programs, these are generally designed to expand and enhance organizations that provide small business management, technical, or financial assistance. These grants generally support non-profit organizations, intermediary lending institutions, and state and local governments.”

Nonetheless, you can go to the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) http://www.cfda.gov and Grants.gov http://www.grants.gov – these are two sites created by the federal government to provide transparency and information on grants. Browse through the listings and see if you can find any grant that would support a for-profit venture.

Here is a listing of federal grants for small businesses. See if there is any available for individuals for starting a business — THERE’S NONE.
Http://12.46.245.173/pls/portal30/CATALOG.BROWSE_BENEF_RPT.show

Most of the federal grants are given to specific target groups with specific requirements (e.g. Minority business owners involved in transportation related contracts emanating from DOT – Grant#20.905 Disadvantaged Business Enterprises Short Term Lending Program

Grants are also often given to non profit groups or organizations involved in training or other similar activities (grant 59.043 Women’s Business Ownership Assistance that are given to those who will create women’s business center that will train women entrepreneurs

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Your Questions About Renewable Energy Jobs

Daniel asks…

any one know of any renewable energy engineering universities?

If you know of any universities that that renewable energy engineering please give me their names, and a website link to if possible.

admin answers:

All accredited engineering schools teach everything you need to know about renewable energy. Focus on either chemical (ChE), mechanical (ME) or electrical (EE). EEs will tend to do more in solar electric, MEs in wind turbines, nuclear and passive solar, and ChEs in portable fuels (such as gasoline substitutes) and nuclear, so it depends on what most interests you. Don’t count on getting a job in renewables right off – just get a job.

Lizzie asks…

what are some good jobs that involve sustainability?

Im a freshman at the University of Oregon. I am a business major and I am interested in doing some kind of work in the sustainability field. Being a freshman I am no pro when it comes to sustainability, but I would like to do some kind of work that involves improving the environment and promoting renewable energy. Whats a good job I could possibly see myself doing in the futre?

admin answers:

Be a bureaucrat. You won’t be expected to produce anything. All you’ll need to do is harass the people who are actually trying to run a business.

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Your Questions About Sustainable Energy Definition

Laura asks…

What is meant by Green Energy and what are the disadvantages of it?

admin answers:

There are several different terms that are commonly used without lots of definition.1 “Green” energy gets its name from plants that use photosynthesis and as a result are “green.” Fuel made from biomass: wood, alcohol, and bio-gas are all good examples. Because it is in the nature of biomass to grow and renew itself anything associated with the term “green” also tends to suggest what is sustainable and renewable. From there anything that is sustainable or renewable sometimes gets the “green” label though this is exactly true.

The problem with using a term like “Green” is that it tends to commonly be used in all sorts of ways that may not be particularly accurate. This is very close to the difference between the denotative meanings of words and the connotative meanings: The dictionary definitions and the way words are used and make us feel when they are used. For proponents “green” is associated with loving, caring, environmental responsibility, concern and attention. For detractors “green” is a pejorative that means many of these things overdone or done irresponsibly so that especially in the political section here you will see references to “greenies” and where the term is also associated with democrats, socialists, and left leaning politics.

We might talk about the “greening” of nuclear energy as rhetoric increasingly speaks to the facts that nuclear energy is not a fossil fuel, it does not use combustion as a source of energy and does not emit any exhaust into the atmosphere in its normal operation. Detractors will point out that nuclear fuel is in limited supply and is not renewable. Present reactors are therefore not sustainable and the only “green” aspect is that their use is an “alternative to and may offset using fossil fuels that are clearly not green, “sustainable” or “renewable”

Green energy by itself is neither advantageous or disadvantageous. It only becomes so relative to particular goals. As we do when describing a “knife” or “fire” green energy can be described as neither good or bad but from the use it is put to. While it may be advantageous to an environmental agenda it becomes disadvantageous to a fossil fuel industrial agenda. It tends to be more “of the people and bottom up rather than a leadership, top down solution.

Sharon asks…

where can i find a list of all alternative fuel sources?

I mean a list with all of them, nuclear fission, biofuel, solar, deep space solar, hydroelectric, geothermal, you know, all of them. This whole bp oil disaster has got me worried, what is the best alternative to oil?

admin answers:

A definitive list of “alternative fuel sources” first would require a definition. Coal is an alternative to Oil and Gas. Nuclear is an alternative to them all but is not sustainable, renewable, or non polluting. Bio fuels are renewable but may not be sustainable or even sufficient. All “thermal” forms of energy create heat that one theory suggests is the real cause of global warming and not strictly greenhouse gasses. Solar is not usually a good “alternative” at night and wind is not a good “alternative” in all locations.

The “best” alternative will always be the one where you can find the easiest and cheapest resources locally. In some places that may be geothermal. In another place that may be solar. In another it may be wind generation. Hydro for another. And maybe even coal, oil, or gas for some places. What is “cheapest” however should include all externalities and subsidies.

Ultimately, as a general rule all generated power derrives from nuclear fusion on the Sun except nuclear fission, some geothermal and tidal energy.

Peswiki and powerpedia present a fairly exhaustive list of possibilities see all sites below. Because this is “community based there are even subjects that are not considered possible by mainstream physics (zero point energy…)

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Your Questions About Renewable Energy Content

James asks…

What is the difference between oil and fuel (ethanol)?

I’m writing a research paper on how Brazil is resourcefully using sugar cane to create biofueled ethanol. My question is: Is ethanol the same thing as like gasoline and oil? Because I’m supposed to write on the problems associated with it. And I’m not sure if mentioning the United States’ over dependency on gas would make sense when suggesting that we come up with more efficient ways to produce energy

So what’s the difference?

admin answers:

There are many different ways these may be compared and contrasted.

You referred specifically to the US dependency on gasoline. This dependency is important because gasoline is refined from crude oil. Crude oil is both a finite mineral produced from ground supplies and it is a mostly foreign resource. Because it is a limited resource demand that is larger than the available supply will likely continue until the supply is exhausted. Because it is a foreign resource the resulting in-balance creats huge US trade deficits.

Ethanol is a renewable product but is more efficiently produced from plants with a higher sugar content like sugarcane. Sugarcane is more easily produced outside of the continental US.

There are many other issues but you seemed to be focusing on these.

Betty asks…

What are some positive aspects of solar energy?

I need to know some postive aspects of solar energy for my Alternative energy project plz help i looked around on the internet for some couldnt find any plz help 😉 Best Answer Gets 10

admin answers:

I was in Zambia this summer, and I noticed that many of the people were using solar power. I thought it was interesting.

Well, from what I know…

Solar power is renewable
Solar power is capable of being stored
Solar power can be accessed just about anywhere with sunlight
Solar power is pretty cheap in comparison to other fuels

There is a large tower, if I am not mistaken, in Australia that is covered in glass. Scientists are hoping that the power recieved from the sun onto this tower might be able to power a couple cities. Some other countries are trying it out as well.
I think this is the main website: http://www.enviromission.com.au/EVM/content/home.html
This page also has more information on solar power: http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/technology/solar-power/

I personly find solar power interesting due to its cheap price and efficincy. There is one drawback; solar power does not work at night unless it gets stored and used from storage. In Zambia, we had a blackout service due to there not being enough power (which explains why they did not use it much during the day: they saved it for night).

Hoped this helped! God be with you on your project!

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Your Questions About Sustainable Energy For All

Helen asks…

I need help in figuring out a good degree program that is Eco friendly.?

I know what kind of career I want but I don’t know where to find it, what to major in, etc. I know I want to at least have my masters if not go even further with my education. I would love a career that will positively impact the world, environment, people, animals, etc. I was think something in sustainable energy design or urban planning. Really anything in that general area would be helpful, then maybe I can figure it out from there. Oh, also I nice salary would be nice 🙂

Thank you!

admin answers:

Consider James Madison University’s degree in Integrated Science & Technology.

Sharon asks…

Are there any good jobs in the “Energy” field?

I’m starting to study “Bachelor of Science in Sustainable Energy Management”

I’ve already done a year in Environmental Science but left it early. So I will be using those units as credit for my new degree as electives.

But considering the degree is majored in ‘energy‘ will I be able to get jobs as, say, an Environmental Scientist… Or in research? .. I’m just not quite sure if this degree will limit me only to Energy or not.

Because I will have a lot of environmental and biology electives!

What are your thoughts?

admin answers:

What is Sustainable Energy Management? Last year a did three wind farms. Today I started on a scada project for a hydro. If I don’t know what your major is, no one else will.

There are a lot of environmental jobs in the industry. Every power plant has EPA reports to file for particulates, tons of CO2. I built a substation and had to file an environmental impact statement. I had to hire a bug hunter to make sure no rare bugs were there. And a second guy to fill out the paperwork.

Solar cell manufactures have a major problem with hazardous waste. Tons of paperwork that has to be correctly filed.

Most of these jobs require a background in science, and being able to handle the paperwork.

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Your Questions About Renewable Energy For Kids

Daniel asks…

How does my turning off household lights save the planet?

I know it saves electricity and money, but how does it save the planet?

How is energy use hurting the planet? Is there really proof that the little extra heat is doing that much?

I know there’s wasted energy… But is it really that hard to get more? And if it is, where can I find more info on it?

Is it because of how electricity is harnessed?

Also relevant, when they say you save money to feed kids in Africa or what have you, is there anything leading environmentalists to believe that people would use their saved money for a good cause?

admin answers:

The most common forms of electricity generation used today burn lots of fossil fuels, which contributes to global warming and adds pollution to the atmosphere, causing things like acid rain and smog, which worsens (and may even cause, indirectly) conditions such as chronic bronchitis and asthma.

From a purely human-centered perspective also, the more fossil fuel-generated energy we waste, the sooner we run out of fossil fuels. In the end, it may not matter, if we are able to transition to renewable forms of energy in time, but there is a long, long way to go before the US and other developed countries will be able to meet its energy needs from renewable sources, and if we don’t make the transition in time the consequences could be very bad.

Http://www.peakoil.com/
http://www.lifeaftertheoilcrash.net/
http://www.relocalize.net/about/relocalization

William asks…

If saving the planet is so important WHY ?

I mean let`s be honest, all these planet saving things should be free and done in double quick time
not cost a fortune We are ( so to speak) all in the same sinking ship yes??.
Government taxes – green premium prices – come on who is kidding who here?

admin answers:

Saving the planet doesn’t usually cost much. In the long run, as I’m sure you’re already aware, being environmentally conscious and practicing sustainability is more of an INVESTMENT than any thing else.

As I’ve said in earlier answers to environmental questions, societies should be going backwards rather than forwards. Instead of using pesticides (and paying for them), use bugs that are natural predators to those bugs (lady bugs, for instance, are good for your yard). Instead of spending millions and often billions of dollars to chop off the tops of mountains to mine coal, causing rapid water-run off that’s poisonous and contaminates our drinking water, we should find other resources, like our own damn arms and legs!

Joking, but seriously enough, let’s learn from history and use the sustainable practices of the peoples before us. The thing is: our “natural resources” are running out!!! Even our blue gold (water) is highly contaminated (I detracted H Paloi from my tap water, a disease that causes you to throw up everything you drink/eat. They’ve only found the cure a couple years back. More than 40% of people get it…some without even knowing it). Check out the book, Blue Gold, so see what I’m talking about.

PV (Photo Voltaics–solar panels) and wind energy are great investments in energy BECAUSE IT’S RENEWABLE!! Unlike coal, we will never (at least for a very long time) run out of the sun or the wind).

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Your Questions About Sustainable Energy Systems

Nancy asks…

how does matter and energy cycle through ecosystems?

okayy so i’m so confused because i have to do a summer assignment and write about how matter and energy cycle through ecosystems and i have noo clue what i’m doing and am so confused!!! lol

but yeah so coould anybody give me either really good sites, or maybe you know about this topic? because i’ve looked at the other answers to this question when someone else asked it and i didnt understand the answer at all! any answers would be appriceated!! thanks!

admin answers:

Since we have addressed most of the harmful pollution issues we are left with the byproducts of the energy-matter cycle. Our Environmental issues have been boiled down to their most basic elements, there is too much Carbon in the air, it needs to be in the ground, and there is too much Nitrogen in the water, it should be in the air. It really is that simple.
Excessive Carbon in the air is the byproduct of burning fuels that once were plants & animals. We are releasing it into the air at alarming rates that are measurable globally and has the potential to drastically change our world.
Excessive Nitrogen in the water is from poor agricultural practices & artificially fixed Nitrogen that, when washed into open waterways, promote the excessive growth of algae. This alters the food chain of local environments worldwide.
The best way to fix this is first to understand the what & why, this is where assignments like yours are so important. Taken this opportunity to teach people about the problems, their causes & cures.
One interesting factoid I came across during the recent 100 year anniversary of chemical ammonia & fertilizer, was that 50% of the Nitrogen in our bodies has come from artificially fixed ammonia!

Here is the Cycle in a Snapshot……

#1 is the Sun

Mix Water (Hydrogen & Oxygen) with Nitrogen & Carbon. Through Photosynthesis, plants make sugars, carbohydrates, starches, and cellulose.

Animal metabolize these for food.

As Plants and animals die & decay the Nitrogen is released & taken back into plants, as well as some of the carbon.

What is left in the ground after a long time are hydrocarbons and over the eons, this has changed Earths atmosphere into the low Carbon, high Oxygen Environment we know today.

Mankind has through innovation found we can do work with the energy locked in the Hydrocarbons, and over the past 150 years have become so efficient at doing so, that we are releasing more Carbon into the air than Earth’s systems can consume back. We have also overflowed the capacity of Plants by over fertilizing the soil to produce ever growing amounts of food. This excess finds it way into waterways and thus the problems it causes.

We must find ways to work in the confines of the Environment around us. Low Carbon energy, and sustainable food production are key. The answers are out there, we just need to find them & implement them.

Good Luck on your report!

Daniel asks…

Haiti – How much cost for the US to take over Haiti as a de facto Protectorate?

Nothing else has worked. A ten-year interim government could completely change the education system to root our racism and illiteracy, make adequate health care and food available, restore the land for sustainable agriculture, and reorganize the government to eradicate corruption, in short to establish a viable civil society that the Haitian People deserve? Or, with the political ramifications, is Haiti not worth our time, energy and money? The piece-meal fixes over the years seem to do nothing but maintain the status quo. ANY OTHER IDEAS?

admin answers:

The costs would start at a trillion dollars just to build the infrastructure required to do this. Then you could probably count on about 100 billion a year to sustain the programs.

Due to the language issues (the majority of the people in Haita only speak a dialect that is unique to the island and French is the language spoken in business and govrenment) it will take over 20 years to create a generation who are educated to modren standards. It would then take another 20 years for these people to become expierenced middle and senior managers capible of managing a government and govrenment agencies.

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Your Questions About Renewable Energy Companies

George asks…

How can such a company be allowed to build nuclear power plants?

How is it possible that a company with the reputation of Tepco be allowed to build nuclear power plants in Japan where there are large earthquakes? …or anywhere for that matter. In fact, corporate greed has reached it’s peak don’t you think? Why do you think man has been so lazy in using renewable energy sources?

admin answers:

The Politics of Power!

Edit”

On Brians answer… Humans call it clean and renewable…while trying to ignore that they are burying Nuclear waste under the earths crust calling it safe. Actually it gives the problem to the next generation of humans and the environment.

Earthquake happen underground all the time.only sometimes generating havoc on the surface.
If this waste were to ever leak into the underground water system…the epic radiation of spent fuel rods will pollute more than just an area on top of the earth.

Sandy asks…

To the doubters of global warming, would you buy renewable energy?

I hear you, you are sick of Al Gore and aren’t convinced in the science behind global warming. But would you buy renewable energy anyway, since it pollutes less? Even if it cost a little more? Say $5 extra a month for 200KwH if your Electric Company offered it? It would be nice if congress passed a law that required Electric Companies to offer renewable energy so that at least you would have the option to buy renewable if you wanted to?

admin answers:

Although I am not a doubter of Global Warming, there is a limit to how much extra I would be willing to pay for renewable energy, even though I am a fan of renewable energy..

Fortunately the cost of production for electricity produced by wind is approximately 4 cents per kilowatt hour which makes it very competitive with energy produced by fossil fuels.

However for electricity produced by solar photovoltaic cells the cost of production is over 10 times that largely because of the huge capital costs for a system that produces relatively small amounts of electricity.

The cost of production of electricity produced by solar photovoltaic cells is over 40 cents per kilowatt thour.

The maximum amount of money that I am willing to pay for ecectricity is approximately 15 cents per kilowatt hour which makes electricity produced by wind possible, but not electricity produced by solar photovoltaic cells.

I also am not willing to go along with a subsidy for electricity produced by solar photovoltaic cells.

Any method of electricity production must stand on its own economically without subsidies.

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Your Questions About Sustainable Energy Development

Charles asks…

What are the best three sustainable construction techniques available?

Construction Techniques available should cover each of the following:

-Reducing energy consumption during construction and operation.
-Use of materials.
-Reducing and managing waste and natural resources.

Thanks in advance!!

admin answers:

# Planing-
Urban planners that are interested in achieving sustainable development or sustainable cities use various design principles and techniques when designing cities and their infrastructure.

# Architecture-
Sustainable architecture attempts to reduce the collective environmental impacts during the production of building components, during the construction process, as well as during the lifecycle of the building (heating, electricity use, carpet cleaning etc.)

# Landscape and garden design-
Design techniques include planting trees to shade buildings from the sun or protect them from wind, using local materials, on-site composting and chipping to reduce green waste hauling, and also may involve using drought-resistant plantings in arid areas (xeriscaping) and buying stock from local growers to avoid energy use in transportation.

Hope this must be helpful.

David asks…

Why is the recycling of iron neccessary for sustainable development?

Heard some people talking about it, was just wondering. Thanks!

admin answers:

Iron is one of the most used and recycled metals.
It takes from 2 to 10 the energy to use virgin ore over recycling. Extraction accounts for 7% of the worlds energy use. The more we recycle the less that needs to be mined.

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Your Questions About Renewable Energy Content

Robert asks…

Doing a school project on environmental change, need a tiny bit of help?

My 3 solutions for cutting carbon dioxide emissions are:

-new biofuels (not derived from food)
-Improvements to wind, solar, or any renewable sources of energy (i have yet to pick 1 specific one)
-Green building

Are there any sites or organizations that are specifically dedicated to one of the solutions?

admin answers:

– There are several proposals for non-plant bio-fuels, switchgrass is one and ethanol producing algae are another.

One resource I would tap into if I were you would be Wired Magazine. They are a reputable source and could be of direct us to you as well as providing interviews from experts that you could then research. Just go to the site and type in biofuels into the search

http://www.wired.com

– One of my favorite improvements to wind energy is found this article I read about improving the design of the rotor blades themselves. It is pretty interesting and the rest of the site should be useful to you as well.

Http://www.ecogeek.org/content/view/1419/

– The US Green Buildings Council is a great authority on green buildings and have developed a set of standards to rate buildings

http://www.usgbc.org

Hope that helps.

Joseph asks…

What is the product of adding ethanol to petrol?

ok so I’m pretty sure that the equation goes:

C2H5OH + C8H18 —> C10H23OH

I need this for a chemistry assignment I’m doing but Im wondering if I’m completely off the mark here… Im looking for what the product of blending ethanol with petrol to about a 20% content would yeild, bear in mind this is a year/grade 12 thing so it doesnt require a super complicated answer.

admin answers:

Woah

yes

you are completely completely off the mark. That chemical reaction doesn’t happen, you’ll learn why in college level organic chemistry.

The mixing of ethanol with gasoline doesn’t cause a chemical change, its just a mixture. Its like putting water into gasoline– its still gasoline and water. But at least the ethanol burns!

The goal is to have “renewable” ethanol which is derived from corn or sugar, used instead of unrenewable gasoline.

And its great, until you realize that it takes more energy to grow the corn and harvest it and turn it into ethanol than you get out of the gasoline.

If you want to stand apart from your classmates, argue AGAINST unfail ethanol subsidies which cause food prices to go through the roof while people around the world starve!

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Your Questions About Sustainable Energy

Sandra asks…

I’m writing an essay on what farmers can do to lead the way to a sustainable energy future. Please help!?

(in case my question isn’t complete)
I’m writing an essay on what farmers can do to lead the way to a sustainable energy future/the effect it will have on farmers rural economies, and national security. So, please give me some useful information or ideas to use in my essay. Thanks :).

admin answers:

Farm. Farming takes a single grain of corn, and multiplies it into over 1000 grains of corn. That’s a pretty good return on investment in one year. If we can find a way to turn that corn into fuel, we’d be able to sustain itself pretty easily. We (almost) can. Ethanol is produced from corn, and can be used as a primary fuel with a few modifications to the fuel tank, fuel line, and engine. Ethanol (or similiar plant derivitives) can be turned into energy. If you net more energy in the harvest than you put into planting, weeding, cultivating, fertilizing and harvesting, then the net is sustainable.
The effect would be more jobs in the rural communities that farm (and of course less jobs in the oil fields) and a net increase in the value of farm land (with an accompanying decrease in the value of the oil fields.)
If a nation is energy self-sufficient, then it is easier for it to place its own interests over other nations. Can we afford to go to war with Saudi Arabia, when 25% of our energy comes from there? Well, if we produced all of our own fuel, then we could decide if and when to go to war against another nation. Right now, we have to balance the long-term consequences of our national security with the short-term cost of fuel for the average American.

So, if farmers produced all our energy (which really would come from the sun–to the plant–to the consumer), the farmer’s would get more money; less money would go to foreign governments; we’d be able to rattle our sabers at foreigners without a fear of reprisal, and we could fire everyone that works for the evil oil companies. (Oh, unless you happen to work for one of the evil oil companies, then you’d just be unemployed–but you’d be able to find work as a farmer.)

Richard asks…

does anybody have an idea for an exhibit on waste management or sustainable energy?

i am in class 6th and we are having an science exhibition and the topic’s are sustainable energy or waste management. please i really need help….

admin answers:

Why not do both with one exhibit?
Waste to energy plants. There will always be some kind of waste so we can always burn it to make electricity.
Http://www.v-energia.com/images/p008_1_00.jpg

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Your Questions About Renewable Energy Definition

George asks…

what is renewable energy?

I have a project on renewable energy resources, so does anyone have a good definition?

admin answers:

Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished). In 2008, about 19% of global final energy consumption came from renewables, with 13% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.2% from hydroelectricity.[1] New renewables (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels) accounted for another 2.7% and are growing very rapidly.[1] The share of renewables in electricity generation is around 18%, with 15% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewables.[1][2]

Wind power is growing at the rate of 30% annually, with a worldwide installed capacity of 158 gigawatts (GW) in 2009,[3][4] and is widely used in Europe, Asia, and the United States.[5] At the end of 2009, cumulative global photovoltaic (PV) installations surpassed 21 GW[6][7][8] and PV power stations are popular in Germany and Spain.[9] Solar thermal power stations operate in the USA and Spain, and the largest of these is the 354 megawatt (MW) SEGS power plant in the Mojave Desert.[10] The world’s largest geothermal power installation is The Geysers in California, with a rated capacity of 750 MW. Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world, involving production of ethanol fuel from sugar cane, and ethanol now provides 18% of the country’s automotive fuel.[11] Ethanol fuel is also widely available in the USA.

While many renewable energy projects are large-scale, renewable technologies are also suited to rural and remote areas, where energy is often crucial in human development.[12] Globally, an estimated 3 million households get power from small solar PV systems. Micro-hydro systems configured into village-scale or county-scale mini-grids serve many areas.[13] More than 30 million rural households get lighting and cooking from biogas made in household-scale digesters. Biomass cookstoves are used by 160 million households.[13]

Climate change concerns, coupled with high oil prices, peak oil, and increasing government support, are driving increasing renewable energy legislation, incentives and commercialization.[14] New government spending, regulation and policies helped the industry weather the global financial crisis better than many other sectors.[15]

Steven asks…

How do eco-friendly products help the environment?

I’m writing a paper on how eco-friendly products such as household cleaners are beneficial for the environment, but I’m running out of good resourses, as well as good explanations to back up my thesis. Can someone help? Thank you

admin answers:

Reduce
The amount of energy you consume and start using renewable energy sources, such as wind power and solar power. Sign up for Green Energy with your local power provider. If they don’t have it, then tell them to get it.
Reuse
By using products made with recycled materials. Make or buy a compost bin to use your organic waste as fertilizer for your trees, shrubs, and garden.
Recycle
All materials to your best ability in your local area.
There is a green movement in the country, it could be a case of too little too late, but at the least we are moving towards a nation that has a conscious about destroying the environment. The green movement has caught on with many groups and has become fashionable in some industries. The home building or home improvement industry is no exception. Many construction companies, home improvement centers and building products advertise some level of commitment towards “green” or environmentally friendly construction. Are these companies actually fulfilling their promises? That is a discussion for another day What we want to focus on is how a wood kitchen cabinet can help you become environmentally friendly. Everyone should want to reduce their “carbon footprint”. This carbon footprint is roughly defined as the amount of CO2 that you, as a living person, put into the environment each day. It can be everyday activities like driving a car, running an air conditioner, or building a house. Almost everything you do has a connection to the environment, be it direct or incidental. Taking products and using them is basically us being consumers and from this consumption we are taking from nature. This then creates pressure on the environment. So again, if I am building a house or renovating my kitchen, how do wood kitchen cabinets help lower my carbon footprint? The first thing is to define a “wood kitchen cabinet”. Unless you’re living in the nineteenth century, you’re probably not going to see a solid wood cabinet. It is not economical and it just does not make sense in the building industry.

What you are getting in wood kitchen cabinets is one of two things. Solid wood faced cabinets with paneled wood sides (these are the good cabinets) or the lesser quality cabinet that is a wood front and a particle board side (places like Home Depot and Lowe’s sell these inferior cabinets). Now that you have a definition of what really is a wood kitchen cabinet, you can then ask where I find these solid wood cabinets with paneled sides. The very best, easiest, and least expensive method to buying these cabinets is actually online. Yes, the internet cabinet websites easily beat any retail prices. (Mostly because of less over head). Finally, how am I saving the environment, if I am buying wood kitchen cabinets? The trick to saving money and the environment is the RTA kitchen cabinet. It is not a brand name, but rather a style of cabinet. RTA stands for “ready to assemble”. These cabinets are about thirty to forty percent less than an assembled cabinet and they are actually helping to cut down carbon emissions and save lumber. These all wood RTA kitchen cabinets use the entire tree, thus cutting waste. Furthermore, these cabinets save space on shipping. They are unassembled so they take up to fifty percent less space. This “space savings” contributes to less shipping; this produces less carbon dioxide. You may say that does not seem like much, but when you add up the number of shipments, this becomes a huge amount of carbon dioxide that is kept out of the atmosphere. So in the end, every little bit helps. Yes buying wood kitchen cabinets, especially RTA kitchen cabinets will help the environment. Now all we have to do is get everyone to do their own small part.

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Your Questions About Renewable Energy For Kids

Mary asks…

If you took living green to an extreme how would it affect society/civilization?

Would society collapse because of whatever, or would society get happier and healthier?
I can imagine a place where sun and wind energy could efficiantly power everything needed. We all grow our own food and vegetables and so on. A lot of jobs could possibly become unessential, while others would be more in demand. You get the idea.

admin answers:

I’m thinking beyond the transition, to the future in a utopian “green” world. Social units would be different, because we wouldn’t have a bunch of kids to raise. Loose knit groups similar to communes might be more prevalent than the outdated “marriage”. Private transportation would be electric powered from solar arrays. Manufacturing would be centered on the recycling and retrofitting instead of manufacturing by using non- renewable resources. Centralized electric generation and power distribution systems will be a thing of the past, as we utilize solar and improved electric storage systems. Perhaps capacitors instead of chemical batteries. Technology would require skilled engineers and technicians to keep every thing working, We’d have nearly full employment as the seasonal rises and dips leveled out. Food might be grown hydroponically, in small underground areas, utilizing waste water, and waste products. Again reducing the seasonal nature of growing. I could go on until it sounded like an Isaac Asimov novel.

David asks…

Do I want an electric provider that is 100% renewable energy?

Does it still work all the time? Are there any times that it goes out or doesn’t work? Are the outages the same as with traditional electric?

admin answers:

Hey Christy, good question. We are big renewable energy people up here. Our home generates most of its own electricity from the wind and sun. It is heated primarly by wood and solar gain, and our hot water is about 50% solar. My short answer to your question is, “maybe.”

Like a lot of people where you live, you find yourself in a position of choosing where your energy comes from more daunting than you thought it would be. I like the idea of all our power coming from a renewable source, but I don’t think it is worth doing it at the expense of other areas of our lifestyle. Should kids spend all their time after school doing homework and reading, thereby making them smarter, or should they engage in sports the remainder of the day at the expense of school work to make them stronger? The correct answer is balance. They should spend some time outside each day if possible, and engage in some sports, while leaving adequate time for school work as well. The same is true for electricity. When a power company produces power with a wind turbine, that’s good. It is added to the power grid, and the coal or oil plant down the road can throttle back and save fuel, producing less pollution. But we can’t replace the coal plants entirely, or a calm day will certainly come along and we’d be in trouble. We have an option here where you can stipulate how much of your utility power comes from renewable sources, and we pay a small fee for each 10% we ask for. What little electricity we buy from the power company now has to be 50% based on renewable sources. This way we don’t have to pay the maximum amount for 100% renewable sources, but the power company has sufficient incentive to invest in renewable sources, it’s a win win for all of us.

You should look at the options and decide what is best for you. Which companies have the best track record or reputation, what are your neighbors doing and why, and so on. Here are a few sources if you’re interested in doing more research. Good luck Christy, take care, Rudydoo

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Your Questions About Sustainable Energy Companies

Carol asks…

What sort of sustainable energy sources or resources are the cleanest and most economically viable ?

Since petroleum oil is becoming less affordable and is believed by many to be the main cause for global warming, what do you think should replace petroleum oil and gas?

admin answers:

The most appropiate type of alternative energy source will be dependant on the application. I will assume you are refering to alternative energy for use in vehicles. Currently there are a few alternatives, some in the early phases of implementation, others a long way off. In the end different techonoligies will develop in parallel to maturity. These include:

1) Hybrid vehicles (petrolium based/electric hybrids) – very economical, they recover energy in breaking in a dynamo to charge the battery bank and a gas or diesel engin for the main power source.

2) Bio-fuel – primarly bio diesel from soya oil, or Ethanol from corn or biomas. This is sustainable but requires agrigulctural land to supply the soya, maize, etc. Regular diesel vehicles can use bio-diesel with minimal modifications required. Gas powered cars can use a gas/bioethanol blend very easily with minimal modifications required.

3) GTL (synthetic) diesel – made from natural gas that may otherwise have been flared (burnt). This is a low sulphur, low aromatic, cleaner burning diesel. Many petrolium companies including Sasol-Chevron and Shell are developing this technology. See the site http://www.sasolchevron.com/ . Regular diesel cars can use GTL diesel without any modifications required.

4) Hydrogen powered cars – based on the hydrogen fuel cell require a source of hydrogen. They have no emissions (except water) and low noise also. To make hydrogen you need energy and this would have to come from a clean source. There is a lot of water availible, but you need electricity to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Currently the only really viable source would be nuclear power. If in the distant future fusion reactors could be comercialised, they could provide the energy for battery/hydrogen powered cars. There are still some problems to solve so this is a longer term possibility. Other problems include how to store hydrogen in the vehicle safely. Its a highly flammable gas and would need to be stored under high pressures. Current vehicles would have to be significantly modified to run on hydrogen. The method of using the hydrogen would be using a hydrogen fuel cell that generates electricity from the hydrogen. The car would use an electric motor.

5) LPG (liquified propane gas) – this fuel combusts (burns) in the engine like gas. LPG is expensive to produce and transport though it could be used in modified engines.

These are the main alternatives currently availible.

Donald asks…

What jobs can a building surveyor be engaged?

I’m now looking for companies to apply internship. but i wonder what else position in the market can a building surveryor take except quantity surveyor?

admin answers:

» Job description

Building surveyors provide professional advice on all aspects of property and construction. They work on site with new buildings and are concerned with the aftercare and performance of existing buildings. This is a very wide field and may include advising on various aspects of buildings at different stages, including:

* design;
* maintenance;
* repair;
* dilapidations;
* refurbishment;
* restoration;
* sustainability.

The nature of the work may range from the design of large, multimillion-pound structures to modest adaptations and repairs, and sometimes includes working with buildings of architectural or historic importance.

Building surveyors may be called upon to give evidence in court in cases where building regulations have been breached and as expert witnesses on building defects and dilapidations.
» Typical work activities

Building surveyors work in many areas of property and construction so the work is diverse and rarely routine. Tasks typically involve:

* ensuring projects are completed on budget and on time;
* advising clients on schemes and projects and determining requirements;
* preparing scheme designs with costings, programmes for completion of projects and specification of works;
* preparing documents for tender and advising on appointing contractors, designers and procurement routes;
* determining the condition of existing buildings, identifying and analysing defects, including proposals for repair;
* advising on energy efficiency, environmental impact and sustainable construction;
* advising on the preservation/conservation of historic buildings;
* advising on management and supervision of maintenance of buildings;
* dealing with planning applications and advising on property legislation and building regulations;
* assessing and designing buildings to meet the needs of people with disabilities;
* advising on construction design and management regulations;
* negotiating dilapidations (when there is a legal liability for a property’s state of disrepair);
* carrying out feasibility studies;
* advising on the health and safety aspects of buildings;
* advising on boundary and rights of light disputes and party wall procedures;
* preparing insurance assessments and claims.

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Your Questions About Renewable Energy World

Michael asks…

How much electricity will it take to feed the world’s estimated population in 2050?

My question is this: How much electricity would vertical farming take to feed the worlds 9billion people in 2050?

The artificial lights take up a high amount of energy but i’m wondering how much. Condescending question: Would all the renewable energy available that we are technologically capable of right now suffice for the artificial light we would use in 2050 for our food? If not, if our efficiency on these renewable energies grew to suffice the demand of the light how much would our efficiency need to increase?

admin answers:

I have no idea how much electricity it would take. I wonder, though, if it would be better to focus on the demand side of this question. How much electricity could the world save by emphasizing population control, rather than reproduction?

Maria asks…

How much of the World’s energy consumption is renewable?

I know that the World‘s Energy Consumption is 483.6 Q, and the United States energy consumption is 101.55. The United States renewable energy consumption is 6.81 Q.

I can’t find any information the world‘s renewable energy consumption. Does anybody know what it is?

A SOURCE WILL BE REQUIRED FOR VERIFICATION AND BEST ANSWER!

admin answers:

I remember hearing it was roughly worldwide about 1.5% sorry cant provide a link.

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Your Questions About Sustainable Energy Technologies

Jenny asks…

What are the conventional sources of energy?

What are the conventional sources of energy?
What are its advantages and disadvantages?

: D

admin answers:

Conventional energy is energy generated from natural resources—such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides and geothermal heat—which are renewable (naturally replenished).conventional energy technologies include solar power, wind power, hydroelectricity, micro hydro, biomass and biofuels

adv:
they can have a sustainable yield

dis adv:
we can’t rely on the resources….

George asks…

What energy efficient materials would you select to construct your house?

You have $500,000 to construct a sustainable house for your family – you already own the land, so no money goes towards lot purchase. What energy efficient materials would you select to construct your house? What energy and water saving features would you include in your house? Which direction would your house face? How will you handle waste water to reduce water pollution and water usage? What would make your house unique and sustainable? Do a little research before answering this – incorporate appropriate new technologies into your home to make it energy efficient.
IN DETAILS PLEASE (it’s for an essay paper) Thank you in advance!

admin answers:

Heck with energy efficiency. I’d build it out of materials that can’t be eaten by termites (and other insects), and materials that don’t photodegrade.

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Your Questions About Renewable Energy

Chris asks…

What kind of college degree should you pursue to go into the sales field of renewable energy? ?

Where I live the universities do not offer degrees in renewable energy, but do offer classes in it. I know that going into engineering is a plus but I am honestly not a “technical” person. I’d do much better in sales (in financial sales now for 5 years). Any advice would be appreciated.

admin answers:

Illinois State Universtiy offers a bachelor’s degree program in Renewable Energy. It’s a 2 part program, technical and policy. I would check out their website http://www.tec.ilstu.edu/renewable_energy/index.shtml

Nancy asks…

What would be a better long term career, An electrician or renewable energy technician?

I’m 22 and I need to do something with my life. The salaries of the two careers are around the same, but I want a job that will last. Renewable energy is suppose to be big in the future, but I’m sure how many jobs will be available. Any suggestions?

admin answers:

Go with electrician first. The chances are great that those skills will carry over into other things like electronics. You can still take classes for renewable energy technician at night after work. There is no need to end your education simply because you have gained a career.

Electrician is a proven and lasting career field. Go with it.
Renewable Energy still has a long way to go before it can offer you a promising future you can depend on.

Jack
.

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Your Questions About Sustainable Energy Fund

Sharon asks…

Could we transistion to 40% sustainable energy in the next 50 years? How?

If we shifted our investments from oil, bloated military spending etc… Isn’t solar doable for every home now if we make policies to bring the prices down- like we did for the auto (govt funded roads, oil policy), the computer chip, the Internet etc….

admin answers:

We could do it in 2 to 5.

Comprehensive Energy Plan To Lower Gasoline Prices

This is how we will do it. And this why we will do it.

This country has so much under used industrial capacity in our Auto Plants, Airplane Plants, Steel Plants and Electronics Plants to make America Energy Independent in 2 to 5 years. We can build enough windmills and solar power and wave generation energy plants to replace 90% of all of the electricity generated by COAL and NATURAL GAS.

For under $400 Billion we could build 400,000 windmills.

The Coal and Natural Gas saved by Green Replaceable Elecrrical Generation can now be used to make fuel for cars, trucks, busses, boats and airplanes, and or plastics, chemicals, fertilizers and pharmacuticals.

We need a comprehensive plan that puts America back to work in endeavors that benefit 99% of America.

Howard Scott Pearlman

Daniel asks…

Trading in Bioethanol is done in a T1 and T2 product. What is the difference?

Trading in Ethanol for delivery in Rotterdam is done as T1 ethanol FOB Rotterdam, or T2 ethanol FOB Rotterdam. What is the difference between the two?

admin answers:

USD 0.20USD0.25 – 0.45Ethanol production cost48 litres Et/ha/day15 litresEt/ha/dayphotosynthetic efficiency(carbohydrate sythesis)28 – 30 % of sweet sorghum30 % of caneBagasse availability35 – 40 % of cane100%Fertiliser65 – 70 % of cane100%Water requirement45 – 55 litres / tonne of stalks68 – 74litres/tonneConventional ethanol yield9 – 11 %11 – 13 %Sugar content17 – 22 tonnes x twice/year= 34 – 44 tonnes28 – 32 tonnesYield per Acre3.5 – 4 months(Grown twice / year)10-11 monthsCrop CycleSweet SorghumSugarcanePropertiesSugarcane Vs Sweet Sorghum
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Page 12
1205000100001500020000250003000035000SimaKellerMadhuraPraj1Ge2Ge2WrayCowleyTS1VarietyYieldstemskg/haT1T2Harvest of sweet sorghum at different growth stagesT1 – Boot stage T2 – Soft dough stageSweet Sorghum Trials at UNZA (1)
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Page 13
13051015202530T1T2T3T4Growth StageBrix%SimaKellerMadhuraPraj 1GE2GE3WrayCowleyTS1Harvest of Sweetsorghum days afterplantingT1 – 100 – 110 daysT2 – 110 – 120 daysT3 – 120 – 140 daysT4 – 140 – 160 daysAccumulation of sugar in different varieties ofsweet sorghum at UNZA Farm.Sweet Sorghum Trials at UNZA (2)
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Page 14
14Mass Ratios and Brix for Different SS Varieties0.0010.0020.0030.0040.0050.0060.0070.0080.00123456789VarietyPercentageBagasse to SSS RatioJuice to SSS RatioBrix1- Sima, 2- TS1, 3-Madhura, 4-Praj 1, 5- GE2,6-GE3, 7-Wray, 8-Cowlley, 9-KellerSweet Sorghum Trials at UNZA (3)
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Page 15
15OBSERVATIONS…Average juice = 35%, with low varianceAverage bagasse = 65%Average brix = 18.2%, max = 25.31%, min = 12.52%Suitable brix for ethanol production = 15 – 20%Varieties with highest ethanol potential (both highjuice and brix)Wray (Juice 35.14%, Brix 25.31 %)GE2 (Juice 36.96%, Brix 21.66%)Sweet Sorghum Trials at UNZA (4)
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Page 16
16Potential Export MarketsRegional deficit at E10:> 0.74billion litres at E10 (present)> 1.0 billion litres (2015).International:EU?Asia?
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Page 17
17KEY CHALLENGES & ISSUES TO CONSIDERNo policy on mandatory blendingNo standards developed for ethanol as a transportfuelOver 80% of land is customary (under chiefs!)Lack of policy on bioenergy outgrower schemeswith extension service backupInadequate supporting infrastructureAnnouncement of oil reserves in north westernZambia. What next?Export potential faced with international tradebarriers
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Page 18
18CONCLUDING REMARKSZambia has great potential produce bio-ethanol forsustainable developmentThe climate, soils and area gives it high potential togrow sugarcane and sweet sorghum to exportethanol regionally and internationallyNeed for a condusive regulatory, fiscal and policyframeworkLand locked: need for regional linkagesSADC biofuels market can benefit from expansion ofZambia’s ethanol industry due to centre location
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Page 19
19CEEEZCentre forEnergy, Environment andEngineering Zambia LimitedTHANKS ARE EXTENDED TO:•Global Forum on Sustainable Energy (GFSE)• Austrian Development Agency and Austrian Energy Agency• Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida)• European Commission DG-Research• Common Fund for Commodities (CFC)• Partners in the Cane Resources Network for Southern Africa (CARENSA)EUROPEAN COMMISSIONResearch Directorate-GeneralScientific Coordinatorwww.carensa.net
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Your Questions About Renewable Energy Group

Steven asks…

What do you think of this scenario for a Sci-Fi movie?

It’s 2507, and a small group of civilized, attractive, ethnically-diverse people are holed up over a coal mine in Antarctica, the very last fossil fuels on the Earth. They’re holding off barbarian hordes, and when their stronghold falls, it will be the end of civilization.
“Oh what will we do?” they ask their supercomputer. “Oh why didn’t mankind begin developing renewable energy resources back in the 21st century?”
The supercomputer suggests a plan: they will build a time machine, and use it to send a robot back in time. Being old movie buffs, they make the robot look exactly like Arnold Schwartznegger. The robot is built and sent back to 1990, and arrives in the high-security area of a government lab. At first, the guards think it’s an attack, but they hit the robot with everything they’ve got (lots of attractive explosions, etc.) and nothing can touch it. Eventually the robot convinces some scientists that it’s from the future.
The robot calls a secret conference of top scientists, politicians, and religious leaders. Basically, these guys:

http://www.logicalscience.com/consensus/consensus.htm

The robot pleads for world leaders to begin developing renewable resources. “The people won’t go for it” says the governor of Texas, “we can’t make it happen.”

“Wait a minute” says James Hansen, one of the climate scientists. What if we faked the data, to make it look as if fossil fuels were destroying the Earth’s climate by making it too hot?”

“But we know that the Earth’s climate is just natural cycles” says Michael Mann, “we’ll never be able to get anyone to believe that the tiny contribution of human CO2 could possibly affect the whole world’s climate!”

But Naomi Oreskes says “We could fake all the refereed literature on climate. We have control of all the journals, we can just make up anything we like!”

Richard Lindzen says “But you have to have a little controversy, so it doesn’t look fake!”
And so the great global warming hoax is born. The world leaders enslave the common people of the world by depriving them of fossil fuels. But in the end, it’s worth it.

Back to 2507: The whole future changes. The barbarian hordes disappear, and our beautiful civilized human find themselves in a paradise of plentiful renewable resources.
Ruel the Midianite: the people need to be enslaved for dramatic tension—otherwise the ending is too happy. Maybe the time period could be made 1000 years (of tribulation followed by Earthly paradise)—always good to get in some pseudo-Biblical allusion.

The real Arnold is detained by security forces and sent to a Spa/Gym, and spends the rest of his life lifting. The robot replaces him, and nobody notices. The robot winds down his movie career with increasingly silly movies and then becomes Govenor of California. The people of California are the first to be enslaved.

The secret conference is actually held 5 years after the robot appears, so Bush is governor of Texas. Inhofe is not invited, by mistake, and eventually succumbs to apoplexy.

admin answers:

You have either read too much scifi…or my guess, not nearly enough. Read some Heinlein, I think one of his stories was ver similar to what you propose.

Mark asks…

Help with renewable energy resources in France?

I’ve been set a task to find out about renewable energy in France. What do they use most, how long have they been using it for? Stuff like that. Thanks! 🙂

admin answers:

Use different search engines and different search criteria, each engine has a different algorythm that will produce more of fewer results.

France does use about 75 to 80 percent nuclear power to produce electricity. This has been a statistic that some pro nuclear groups use to try support how safe it is- but no mention of the protests and riots over the waste storage. When was the last time you heard about the fiasco over Germany’s own plans for nuclear waste disposal? And they have a vocal opposition to it as well, and you virtually never hear of it.

I am opposed to nuclear energy myself, Chernobyl saw to that. But short of a failure of equipment on that scale, the US “news media” is heavily filtered and censored, you would never hear of the smaller accidents that happen. And that is what the Pro-nuclear lobby groups are trying to capitalize on. It has been about a generation since that accident, so what else can we expect?

You might get some additional information indirectly, refocus on EU and European Union, those statistics might be more readily found, and would be broken down by member country. Also search the UN website as they sometimes collect that data. Http://www.un.org

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